Glossary of Blockchain


This glossary help you to better understand the various concepts and jargon that is used in Blockchain.

0x

0x is a protocol that allows for decentralized exchange on the Ethereum blockchain. It is designed to provide a low-cost, trustless way to exchange tokens. 0x accomplishes this by using Ethereum smart contracts to allow buyers and sellers to trade directly with each other. This eliminates the need for a third party, such as an exchange, to mediate the transaction. 0x has been live on the Ethereum mainnet since August 2017.

51% Attack

A 51% attack is when a single entity takes control of more than half of the computing power on a network in order to fraudulently alter transactions or block other users from accessing the network. This can be done for a number of reasons such as financial gain, censorship, or simply to take down a competitor.


A

AES-128

AES-128 is a symmetric key algorithm that uses a 128-bit key to encrypt and decrypt data. The algorithm was first published in 2001 and is now considered to be the industry standard for symmetric key cryptography. AES-128 is used in a variety of applications, including blockchain technology.

AES-128 is considered to be very secure, and has withstood numerous attacks over the years. The algorithm is also lightweight and efficient, making it ideal for use in blockchain technology. In addition, AES-128 is supported by most major programming languages, making it easy to use in blockchain applications.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

AES is a symmetric-key encryption standard that is used in a variety of applications, including blockchain technology. It is a 128-bit block cipher that uses a key size of 256 bits, making it one of the most secure encryption standards available.

Address

Addresses serve as a way to track payments and activity on the blockchain. Every transaction that occurs is associated with one or more addresses. When you send or receive cryptocurrency, the funds are transferred between addresses.

Altcoins

An altcoin, or alternative coin, is a cryptocurrency that exists outside of the major coin networks. Bitcoin and Ethereum are the two largest networks by market cap, but there are many other coins that have been developed over the past few years. Altcoins are often created in response to perceived problems with the major networks or to capitalize on new opportunities.

Airdrop

An airdrop is a distribution of tokens or coins, typically at no cost to the recipients, which may be done for promotional purposes or to bootstrap the use of a new network or blockchain. Airdrops can also serve as a way to reward holders of an existing cryptocurrency with tokens from a new project.

Algorithmic Trading

An algorithmic trade is a trade executed by an automated system, rather than a human. Algorithmic traders use computer programs that scan markets and execute trades based on pre-programmed instructions.

The first algorithmic trades were executed in the early 1970s, when computers were first used to buy and sell stocks. At the time, most stock trading was done by human traders on the floor of exchanges.

Algorithmic trading has become increasingly popular in recent years, as computers have become faster and more sophisticated. Today, most major stock exchanges offer services that allow traders to execute algorithmic trades.

Application Binary Interface (ABI)

An ABI is a set of rules that govern how software components in a binary format interact with each other.ABIs are important in blockchain development because they enable different blockchain nodes to interpret and execute contract code correctly. Contracts that are written in Solidity, for example, will only be executed correctly by nodes that have the same ABI enabled. This is necessary to ensure that contracts function as intended across all nodes on the network.

Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

The global fight against money laundering (AML) is getting a boost from blockchain technology. Financial institutions and governments are exploring how the transparent, tamper-proof distributed ledger technology can be used to improve compliance with regulations and combat terrorist financing. One of the key benefits of blockchain is that it creates an immutable audit trail of all transactions, making it easier to track down criminals who try to hide their activities. In addition, by using smart contracts, businesses can automatically enforce regulatory requirements such as know your customer (KYC) checks.

Government and financial institutions are also looking at how blockchain can be used to create new digital currencies that can be used for legitimate transactions. These so-called “stablecoins” could help reduce volatility in the cryptocurrency market and make it easier for people to use digital currencies for everyday transactions.

Approved Addresses

When sending or receiving cryptocurrency, you’ll need to use an address. Addresses are unique identifiers that are associated with a certain amount of cryptocurrency. There are a few different types of addresses, but the most common is a public address. This is the address that you use to receive payments from others.

Arbitrage

Arbitration is the process of buying and selling an asset or security to take advantage of a price discrepancy. When done correctly, it can provide a risk-free profit. For example, imagine you notice that the price of Bitcoin on one exchange is lower than on another. You would then buy Bitcoin on the cheaper exchange and sell it on the more expensive exchange. The profits from this transaction would be your arbitrage profit.

Asset

An asset is a valuable thing that is owned by someone. The most common type of assets are things like money, stocks, and property. But there are other types of assets too. For example, a company’s trademarks or patents can be considered assets.

Asymmetric Encryption

Asymmetric encryption is a type of cryptography that uses two different but mathematically related keys, one public and one private. The keys are created together, but the private key is never shared. Messages encrypted with the public key can be decrypted only with the corresponding private key, and messages encrypted with the private key can be decrypted only with the corresponding public key. This asymmetry is what makes asymmetric encryption more secure than symmetric encryption.

Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerance (aBFT)

The Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm is a process that helps to ensure the accuracy of data in a distributed system. The algorithm was originally designed to help correct errors in messages that may occur when information is distributed between multiple nodes. In order for the algorithm to work effectively, all nodes in the system must be able to communicate with each other.

aTokens

aTokens are digital tokens that can be used to purchase goods and services from participating merchants. aTokens are based on the blockchain technology and use smart contracts to provide a secure and easy way to make transactions.

Atomic Swap

An atomic swap is a technology that allows for the direct exchange of one cryptocurrency for another between two parties, without the need for a third party. Atomic swaps can be used to trade different cryptocurrencies without the risk of one party not following through on the trade. Atomic swaps are made possible by blockchain technology, which allows for direct peer-to-peer transactions without the need for a middleman.

Authentication

Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or device. In computing, authentication is commonly done by providing a username and password. However, there are other methods of authentication such as two-factor authentication and multi-factor authentication.

Authorization

A new approach to authorization is blockchain technology. Blockchain is a distributed database that allows for secure authentication without the need for a central authority. Blockchain uses cryptographic algorithms to create unique identifiers for each user. These identifiers are called tokens. Tokens can be transferred between users and are stored on a public ledger.


B

Blockchain Account

A blockchain account, also called a digital wallet, is a software program that stores private and public keys and allows users to send and receive digital currency and monitor their balance. Blockchain accounts can also be used to store other tokens and digital assets.

Blockchain Account Abstraction Layer (AAL)

In order to make blockchain technology more user-friendly, a number of developers have created account abstraction layers (AALs). An AAL allows users to manage their blockchain transactions without having to understand the underlying code. This makes it easier for people to use cryptocurrency and other blockchain-based applications.

Block 0

Blockchain technology is most commonly known for being the backbone of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. However, the technology has many other potential applications, one of which is being explored by a company called Block 0.

Block 0 is a company that is using blockchain technology to create a new kind of internet. The goal of the company is to create an internet where data is stored on a decentralized network instead of on centralized servers. This would make the internet more secure and less prone to censorship.

Balancer

The Balancer is a blockchain platform that enables businesses to build decentralized applications. The platform uses a unique algorithm that ensures all nodes in the network remain synchronized. This allows businesses to create applications that are reliable and scalable.

Banking as a Service (BaaS)

With the advent of blockchain technology, banks are starting to offer banking as a service (BaaS). This allows businesses to outsource their banking needs without having to establish a bank account. BaaS providers can provide a wide range of services, including payment processing, currency exchange, and lending.

Base Currency

In a blockchain-based economy, the base currency is the most important asset. It is used to buy goods and services, and it is also used to store wealth. The base currency is also known as the reserve currency. In a blockchain-based economy, the base currency is always available for purchase and sale. It can be used to purchase other assets in the economy, and it can also be used to store wealth.

Beacon Chain

Beacon chain is a blockchain technology that enables synchronization of different blockchains. It does this by using a set of protocols that allow blockchains to communicate with each other, which in turn allows them to remain in consensus. This technology has the potential to be used in a number of different ways, including but not limited to developing cross-chain applications and creating digital asset exchanges.

Bear Market

A bear market is a market where the prices of securities are falling, and widespread pessimism causes the demand for goods and services to decrease. It usually occurs when the economy is in a recession and investors are selling stocks to avoid losses.

The bear market has caused some blockchain and cryptocurrency projects to fail, while others have had to reduce their staff or scale back their plans. Despite this, many experts believe that blockchain and cryptocurrency will continue to grow in popularity, thanks to their ability to provide security and transparency.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 32 (BIP 32)

The Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 32, or simply BIP32, is a proposal that allows for the creation of hierarchical deterministic wallets. This means that a single seed can be used to generate an unlimited number of unique addresses. This provides a greater level of security for users, as it eliminates the need to create and store multiple copies of the same wallet.

BIP32 also makes it easier to manage funds, as all transactions can be viewed from a single source. This simplifies the process of tracing payments and identifying fraudulent activities. Overall, BIP32 provides a more secure and user-friendly experience for those using Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 38 (BIP 38) Password

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 38 (BIP 38) is a proposed solution to a problem that has long plagued the Bitcoin blockchain: how can users securely store their bitcoins without having to worry about losing them? BIP 38 provides a way for users to encrypt their bitcoin wallets so that they are not vulnerable to theft or loss. This proposal has been enthusiastically received by the Bitcoin community and is currently in development.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 39 (BIP 39)

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 39, or BIP 39, is a proposed standard for generating deterministic wallets. These wallets are generated from a single “master seed” which can be used to create an unlimited number of unique addresses and private keys. This would allow users to backup their wallets without having to worry about losing access to their funds. BIP 39 also includes a method for restoring lost funds using the “master seed.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 44 (BIP 44)

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 44 (BIP 44) is a proposed standard for wallets that use the Bitcoin blockchain. It defines a structure for using hierarchical deterministic wallets, which allows for multiple accounts and addresses within a single wallet. This makes it easier to manage your funds and improves security by requiring fewer backups. BIP 44 also makes it possible to create new tokens on the Bitcoin blockchain, opening up new possibilities for cryptocurrency development.

Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a digital asset and a payment system invented by Satoshi Nakamoto. Transactions are verified by network nodes through cryptography and recorded in a public dispersed ledger called a blockchain. Bitcoin is unique in that there are a finite number of them: 21 million.

Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. As of February 2015, over 100,000 merchants and vendors accepted bitcoin as payment.

Bitcoiner

A bitcoiner is someone who uses bitcoin. Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency that was created in 2009. It is digital money that can be used to buy things online. Bitcoin is different from other forms of money because it is decentralized. This means that it is not controlled by any government or financial institution. Instead, it is controlled by its users. Bitcoin is also a peer-to-peer currency. This means that transactions are made directly between users without the need for a third party.

Bitcoin Genesis Block

The Bitcoin Genesis Block is the first block of the Bitcoin blockchain. The block was created on January 3, 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin. The block contains a message from Nakamoto that reads: “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks.” The Genesis Block is significant because it marks the beginning of the Bitcoin blockchain and the first use of the cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) is a process by which proposed improvements to the Bitcoin protocol are documented, discussed, and ultimately accepted or rejected by the Bitcoin community. The first BIP was submitted by Amir Taaki on August 15th, 2011. Since then, over 190 BIPs have been submitted by a wide range of people.

Some of the more notable BIPs include BIP0032 (the Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet), BIP0039 (the Mnemonic Code Generation algorithm), and BIP143 (the Segwit activation proposal).

Every BIP is given a unique number and is stored in an online repository on GitHub. Anyone can submit a proposal, but it must be accepted by the community in order to be implemented.

Bitcoin Network

The Bitcoin network is a global decentralized network of computers that use a shared public ledger to record and track bitcoin transactions. This network is used to verify the legitimacy of bitcoin transactions and to prevent double spending. The Bitcoin network is also used to create new bitcoins.

Bitcointalk

Bitcointalk is one of the oldest and most popular online communities for discussing cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. The site has been around since 2011 and has become a go-to source for information on new projects, upcoming ICOs, and discussion about the latest news in the cryptocurrency world. Bitcointalk is also home to some of the most active and engaged members in the crypto community, who are always willing to help out newcomers with advice and support.

BitLicense

The BitLicense is a regulatory framework created by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS) for businesses that use or deal in cryptocurrencies. The license is required for any company that operates in New York, and it covers activities such as exchanging, storing, or transferring cryptocurrencies.

The BitLicense was created in response to the growing popularity of cryptocurrencies and the associated risks. The NYSDFS wanted to create a framework that would protect consumers and ensure compliance with state and federal laws.

Block

A blockchain is a digital ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. It is constantly growing as “completed” blocks are added to it with a new set of recordings. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data. Bitcoin nodes use the block chain to differentiate legitimate Bitcoin transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.

Blockchain

A blockchain is a digital ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. It is constantly growing as “completed” blocks are added to it with a new set of recordings. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data. Bitcoin nodes use the block chain to differentiate legitimate Bitcoin transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.

Blockchain technology works something like this: When Alice wants to send one bitcoin to Bob, her bitcoin wallet application assembles all recent transactions involving Alice and Bob into a single block, which it then sends out to the entire network for verification.

Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP)

A new blockchain transmission protocol called Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP) is being developed that could make it easier for businesses to use blockchain technology. The protocol will allow businesses to transmit data and transactions across different blockchains. This will make it easier for businesses to use blockchain technology for a variety of purposes, such as tracking goods or managing digital identities.

The developers of BTP say that the protocol will help reduce the complexity of using blockchain technology. They also claim that it will be more secure than current methods of transmitting data between blockchains. BTP is still in development, but the developers are planning to release a testnet in the near future.

Blockchain Trilemma

The blockchain trilemma is a problem that arises from the inherent characteristics of blockchain technology. The trilemma states that blockchains can have only two of the following three properties: scalability, security, and decentralization. Many blockchains are trying to achieve all three properties, but this is not possible.

Achieving scalability without sacrificing security or decentralization is difficult. For example, Bitcoin has a very low transaction throughput because it is decentralized and secure. To increase throughput, Bitcoin would need to sacrifice either its security or decentralization. Ethereum has been able to achieve high transaction throughput by sacrificing some degree of security. However, this makes it more susceptible to attack.

Decentralization is also important because it ensures that no one party can control the network.

Block Difficulty

Block difficulty is a measure of how difficult it is to find a new block relative to the easiest it can ever be. The Bitcoin network has a global block difficulty.

This means that all miners around the world are trying to find a new block at the same time. A new block is found by the miner who finds the solution to a particular cryptographic problem.

When they find a new block, they announce it to the rest of the network. The other miners then check their work and see if they have also found the right solution. If they have, they start working on the next block and the process begins again.

Block Explorer

A blockchain explorer is a web application that allows users to search and navigate the blockchain. They provide a visual representation of the blockchain, as well as a way to view transactions and blocks. Most explorers also allow users to search by address, transaction hash, or block number. Some explorers also provide additional features, such as airdrops and token listings.

Block Producers

In a blockchain network, there are nodes that maintain the entire copy of the ledger and then there are block producers. Block producers are elected by the community through a voting process to produce new blocks and keep the network running. They are rewarded with newly created coins and transaction fees for their work.

The role of a block producer is critical in a blockchain network. They are responsible for verifying transactions, maintaining the ledger, and electing new members to the network. They also need to be reliable and efficient so that the network can keep running smoothly.

Block Reward

A block reward is a cryptocurrency reward given to miners for verifying and committing transactions to the blockchain. Miners are rewarded with a set amount of cryptocurrency every time they successfully mine a new block. The block reward is typically a fixed amount of the cryptocurrency, but it can also be a percentage of the transaction fees paid by users within the block.

Block Size

The block size is the maximum number of transactions that can be stored in a block on the blockchain. The block size limit is set by the protocol and determines how large each block can be.

The current block size limit is 1 megabyte, which was set in 2010. This limit has created problems for Bitcoin because it limits the number of transactions that can be processed at once. As a result, the network has become congested and transaction fees have increased dramatically.

Some people argue that the block size should be increased to allow more transactions to be processed. Others believe that the block size should be decreased or eliminated altogether to reduce congestion and transaction fees.

Block Trade

A block trade is a type of trade that is executed outside of the public exchanges. This type of trade typically involves large blocks of shares and is often used to avoid the high volatility and price fluctuations that are common on the public exchanges.

The use of a block trade can provide investors with a more stable price for their shares, which can be important for companies that are looking to raise capital or complete a merger or acquisition. In addition, block trades can help to reduce the market impact that large orders can have on the prices of individual stocks.

There are several benefits to using a block trade, but there are also some risks that investors need to be aware of. One key risk is that the prices for the shares involved in a block trade may not be as stable as they would be on a public exchange.

Binance (BNB)

Binance, often known simply as BNB, is a Chinese cryptocurrency exchange currently sitting in the top 10 exchanges by volume. The company was founded in 2017 and has quickly become one of the most popular exchanges in the world. Binance is notable for its extremely low fees, which it charges for both trading and withdrawals.

The Binance token (BNB) is an ERC-20 token that was created during the company’s initial coin offering (ICO). The BNB token can be used to pay fees on the Binance platform, and holders of the token are entitled to discounts on trading fees. As of January 2019, BNB was the 8th largest cryptocurrency by market cap.

Brain Wallet

A brain wallet is a Bitcoin wallet that is stored entirely in your head. This means that you create a secret phrase and use that to generate a private key and address. You then store the Bitcoins associated with that address in your head. Because your private key is never written down, it’s immune to hackers and theft.

To create a brain wallet, you first need to come up with a secret phrase. This could be something like “My house burned down!” or “I love my cat!”. Once you have your secret phrase, use an online generator to convert it into a private key and Bitcoin address. Store the Bitcoins associated with that address in your head!

A brain wallet is considered very safe because your private key is never written down.

Bridges

Bridges allow different blockchains to interact with each other, which opens up a world of possibilities for businesses and individuals.

For example, imagine if you could use your blockchain ID to log in to any website that accepts them. This would eliminate the need for passwords and make logging in much easier and more secure.

Bridges also allow for the creation of decentralized exchanges, which could revolutionize the way we trade cryptocurrencies. By eliminating the need for third-party intermediaries, decentralized exchanges could provide a more secure and efficient trading experience for users.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

Most people know blockchain as the technology behind Bitcoin, however, the applications for blockchain technology are far reaching. One such application is Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), which is a way of ensuring that digital systems are able to function even when parts of the system are not working correctly. This is accomplished by having a group of nodes work together to agree on the validity of transactions.

The use of BFT can be seen in various industries, including finance and healthcare. In the finance industry, BFT is used to ensure that stock trades are processed correctly. In the healthcare industry, BFT is used to ensure that patient data is not corrupted. By using BFT, these industries can be assured that their data will be processed accurately, even in the event of a system failure.

Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize many industries.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance Delegated Proof of Stake (BFT-DPoS)

BFT-DPoS is a Byzantine Fault Tolerance algorithm that uses Delegated Proof of Stake to improve security. In BFT-DPoS, stakeholders vote for delegates to maintain the blockchain. If a delegate fails to maintain the blockchain or behaves dishonestly, they can be voted out and replaced. This system allows for rapid consensus without the need for trust.


C

Centralization

Centralization is the concentration of control over a particular area or activity. In the context of networking, centralization typically refers to the number of points in a network where data is routed. The more centralized a network is, the fewer routers are necessary to manage traffic and direct packets from one node to another. This results in less complexity and improved performance.

However, centralization can also have drawbacks. It can make networks more vulnerable to attacks if there’s a single point of failure, and it can also lead to bottlenecks if too much traffic is routed through a limited number of nodes.

Change Address

Blockchain technology is changing the way people and businesses manage their addresses. No longer do people have to remember a long and complicated string of numbers and letters to send or receive payments. With blockchain technology, addresses are managed through a secure and decentralized platform that allows for quick and easy transactions.

When you change your address, you’re essentially moving to a new house. You have to tell everyone where you are now so they can send you mail and find you. It’s the same with blockchain addresses - when you change your address, you need to tell everyone so they can send you funds.

Childchain

A childchain is a blockchain that is built from the code of an existing blockchain. It uses the same consensus algorithm and security measures as the original blockchain. Childchains are used to create new applications and features that can’t be implemented on the original blockchain. They are also used to reduce the load on the main chain and improve performance.

Circulating Supply

The circulating supply of a cryptocurrency is the maximum number of units that are in circulation at any given time. This includes both coins and tokens that are in the hands of users and exchanges, as well as those that are locked up in reserve or staked. The circulating supply can change over time as coins and tokens are traded or moved between different wallets. It’s important to understand the circulating supply when assessing a project, as it can give you an idea of the potential market cap and how liquid the asset is.

Coin Swap (or Token Swap)

A coin swap is a process that allows two cryptocurrencies to be exchanged for each other. The coins are swapped one-for-one, so no money is lost in the process. This type of transaction is often used to improve the features of a cryptocurrency. For example, when Bitcoin Cash was created, it was a result of a coin swap from Bitcoin.

A token swap is very similar to a coin swap, except that it typically involves tokens issued on a blockchain platform such as Ethereum. These swaps allow for the exchange of different types of tokens, which can have different purposes or values. Token swaps can be used to improve the functionality of a particular token or to create new tokens with specific properties.

Cold Storage

Cold storage is a way of storing cryptocurrency offline. It can be done through a number of methods, including hardware wallets, paper wallets, and software wallets installed on a computer not connected to the internet. Cold storage is considered more secure than leaving cryptocurrencies online because it reduces the risk of cyber attacks.

Cold Wallet

A cold wallet is a cryptocurrency storage method that does not involve an internet connection. This makes it more secure than other methods, as it is harder for someone to hack into your account. Cold wallets can be created on a computer that is not connected to the internet, or on a hardware device that is specifically designed for storing digital currencies.

Commodity-Backed Stablecoin

A commodity-backed stablecoin is a type of cryptocurrency that is backed by a physical commodity. This type of stablecoin is designed to maintain a stable value, usually by pegging its value to another asset such as the US dollar or gold.

One of the key benefits of using a commodity-backed stablecoin is that it can provide traders and investors with a more reliable store of value than traditional cryptocurrencies. In addition, because these coins are backed by tangible assets, they may be less susceptible to price volatility than other types of cryptocurrencies.

Community Node

A cryptocurrency community node is a computer that is running a full node software client and helps to maintain the blockchain network. By running a full node, you are helping to secure the blockchain and keep it operational. In return, you may be rewarded with cryptocurrency tokens for your efforts. Community nodes are important for maintaining the health of the blockchain network and should be encouraged and rewarded.

Consensus Mechanism

A consensus mechanism is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single result among a group of participants. The term usually refers to distributed systems, where nodes reach consensus about the status of a shared data structure.

Blockchain technology is based on a consensus mechanism. In order for a new block to be added to the blockchain, all of the nodes on the network must agree that it is valid. This consensus-based system ensures that the blockchain is secure and tamper-proof.

Cryptocurrencies also rely on a consensus mechanism in order to function. Nodes on the network must agree on which transactions are valid and which are not. This ensures that the cryptocurrency’s ledger is accurate and can’t be tampered with.

Consortium Blockchain

The consortium blockchain is a relatively new term in the blockchain world. It is a type of blockchain that allows for a group of organizations to work together on a common blockchain platform. This type of blockchain is often used by businesses that want to use the security and transparency of the blockchain but don’t want to deal with the public ledger and cryptocurrency aspects of it. Consortium blockchains are permissioned, meaning that only certain people or organizations are allowed to participate in the network. This makes them ideal for business-to-business transactions where privacy and security are important.

Constant Product Formula

The Constant Product Formula is a mathematical formula used to calculate the constant value of a cryptocurrency. The Constant Product Formula takes the total market cap of a given cryptocurrency and divides it by the number of coins in circulation. This produces a constantly-valued figure that can be used to track the worth of a particular coin. The Constant Product Formula is also used to calculate the market capitalization of a cryptocurrency.

Cost Basis

Cryptocurrencies are often traded on decentralized exchanges and can also be used to purchase goods and services. To protect investors, cryptocurrencies are often assigned a cost basis.

The cost basis is the price paid for the cryptocurrency plus any fees or commissions incurred when acquiring the cryptocurrency. When a cryptocurrency is sold, the cost basis is used to determine the gain or loss on the sale.

Counterparty Risk

Risk is an inherent part of any investment, and the cryptocurrency market is no exception. One of the biggest risks investors face when buying cryptocurrencies is counterparty risk.

Counterparty risk is the risk that the other party in a transaction will not fulfill their obligations. For example, if you buy a cryptocurrency from an exchange, there is always the risk that the exchange will go bankrupt or be hacked, and you will lose your money.

Another source of counterparty risk is when you hold cryptocurrencies in a wallet or on an exchange. If the site goes down or your wallet gets hacked, you could lose your coins.

There are also risks associated with investing in new blockchain projects. These projects are often unproven and may not have a working product or a strong team behind them. As such, they carry a higher risk of failure than more established projects.

Crypto-Backed Loan

Crypto-backed loans are a new way to borrow money by using your cryptocurrency as collateral. The borrower can then use the loan for any purpose they wish, such as expanding their business or buying a new home. The best part is that the interest rate on crypto-backed loans is usually much lower than traditional loans. This is because the lender is taking on less risk by loaning money against crypto assets.

Crypto-backed loans are made possible by blockchain technology, which allows for secure and transparent transactions.

Crypto-Backed Stablecoin

A new type of cryptocurrency, called a stablecoin, is trying to solve this problem. Stablecoins are backed by real-world assets such as gold or fiat currency, which gives them a more stable value. One example of a stablecoin is Tether, which is backed by the US dollar.

The popularity of stablecoins is growing, thanks to their stability and the security provided by blockchain technology. As the cryptocurrency market matures, we can expect to see more and more stablecoins emerge.

Crypto-collateralized

Cryptocurrencies are often lauded for their potential to act as a global currency that can help to facilitate cross-border transactions. However, the current volatility of many cryptocurrencies makes them ill-suited for use as a day-to-day currency. One possible solution to this volatility is the use of crypto-collateralized tokens. These tokens would be pegged to a stable asset, such as gold or the US dollar, and would be used to conduct transactions. The use of crypto-collateralized tokens could help to stabilize the cryptocurrency market and make it more attractive for use as a global currency.

Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual tokens that use cryptography to secure their transactions and to control the creation of new units. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized, meaning they are not subject to government or financial institution control. Bitcoin, the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, was created in 2009. Cryptocurrencies are often traded on decentralized exchanges and can also be used to purchase goods and services.

Cryptocurrency Exchange

Cryptocurrency exchanges are the digital marketplaces where you can buy, sell, or trade cryptocurrencies. There are a variety of exchanges to choose from, each with different features and benefits. It’s important to do your research before choosing an exchange, as not all exchanges are created equal.

When choosing an exchange, you’ll want to consider the following factors: how user-friendly the platform is, how safe and secure the site is, what currencies and trading pairs are available, and what fees the exchange charges. Some exchanges also offer more advanced features such as margin trading or futures contracts.

Cryptocurrency exchanges use blockchain technology to facilitate transactions. The blockchain is a distributed ledger that records all transactions on a network of computers. This ensures that all transactions are transparent and tamper-proof.

Cryptocurrency Wallet

Cryptocurrency wallets are digital wallets used to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized digital currencies that use cryptography to secure their transactions and to control the creation of new units. Bitcoin, the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, was created in 2009. Cryptocurrencies are often traded on decentralized exchanges and can also be used to purchase goods and services.

Cryptocurrency wallets come in many different forms. There are online wallets, desktop wallets, mobile wallets, and hardware wallets. Online wallets are hosted by a third party provider and can be accessed from any computer or mobile device with internet access. Desktop wallets are software programs that run on your computer and store your cryptocurrencies locally. Mobile wallets are apps that can be installed on android or iOS devices and allow you to store cryptocurrencies on your mobile device.

Cryptographic Proofs

CCryptographic proofs are an important part of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. They are used to verify the validity of transactions and to secure the blockchain. Cryptographic proofs are created through a process called hashing. Hashing is a process that takes a input and creates a fixed-length output. The output is known as a hash. Hashing is used to create cryptographic proofs because it is impossible to recreate the input from the hash. This makes it difficult for someone to tamper with a transaction or block in the blockchain.

Cryptojacking

Cryptojacking is a form of hacking that uses someone’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without the owner’s consent or knowledge. The hacker will use malware to get access to the computer and then use it to mine cryptocurrency. This can cause the computer to overheat and crash, and it can also consume a lot of energy, which can increase your electricity bill. Cryptojacking is growing more popular because it is a way for hackers to make money without having to steal someone’s personal information.

Cryptomining

Cryptomining is the process of verifying and recording cryptocurrency transactions into the blockchain. Miners are rewarded with cryptocurrency for their efforts. As the value of cryptocurrencies increase, so does the demand for cryptomining.

Cryptomining is a very resource-intensive process. GPUs and CPUs are used to solve complex mathematical problems in order to verify and record transactions into the blockchain. The more hashing power a miner has, the more likely they are to be rewarded with cryptocurrency.

As cryptocurrencies continue to gain value, mining will become even more competitive. Mining pools are becoming increasingly popular as they allow miners to combine their hashing power and increase their chances of being rewarded with cryptocurrency.

Crypto Tokens

Crypto tokens are digital assets that use blockchain technology to create and manage a decentralized virtual economy. These tokens can be used to represent anything of value, from coupons and loyalty points to securities and derivatives.

Crypto tokens are created and managed through a process called “tokenization.” This process involves dividing up a larger asset into smaller units, which are then sold as crypto tokens. For example, a company might tokenize its shares of stock, selling small fractions of the company to investors in the form of crypto tokens.

Crypto tokens can also be used to create digital economies that operate independently of traditional financial institutions. These economies can be used to power online games, social networks, or any other type of online service. Crypto tokens allow users to interact with these services in a more decentralized and secure way than traditional payments methods.

Custodial Wallet

A custodial wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that is managed by a third party. These wallets are often used to store large quantities of cryptocurrency and are popular among institutional investors. Custodial wallets offer a high level of security, as the third party is responsible for safeguarding the assets stored in the wallet. However, this also comes with a higher price tag, as these wallets typically charge a fee for their services.


D

Dead Coin

Dead Coins are tokens or cryptocurrencies that no longer have a functional blockchain network. These coins are usually not traded and have little to no value. Most Dead Coins were created during the cryptocurrency boom in late 2017, when new altcoins were being created at an alarming rate.

Many of these coins were created with little to no planning or development, and quickly became irrelevant. As of January 2019, over 1,000 different cryptocurrencies are considered Dead Coins.

Decentralized Applications (dApps)

Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology have given rise to a new type of application known as a decentralized application (dApp). DApps are applications that run on a P2P network of computers instead of a single server.

This makes them more secure and resistant to censorship than traditional applications. dApps are also powered by cryptocurrencies, which allows users to pay for goods and services with ease. Some well-known dApps include Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Steemit.

They are applications that run on a blockchain network. They are different from traditional applications because they do not rely on a central server.

This makes them more secure, because there is no single point of failure. It also makes them more efficient, because the network can process transactions faster.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)

A decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), sometimes labeled a “decentralized company”, is a company or organization where the management and operations are run through blockchain-based smart contracts. A DAO operates without a central authority and allows for companies to be more transparent, secure, and efficient.

One of the first successful DAOs was The DAO, which was created in 2016. The DAO was able to raise over $150 million worth of Ether through its Initial Coin Offering (ICO). However, in June of 2016 The DAO was hacked and over $50 million worth of Ether was stolen. This hack led to the creation of Ethereum Classic, which is an open source blockchain that maintains the original Ethereum code base.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A decentralized exchange (DEX) A DEX is a type of cryptocurrency exchange that is not reliant on a third party to hold users’ funds. Instead, DEXs allow users to trade cryptocurrencies directly with one another. This removes the need for a middleman, which can save users money in fees and allow them to retain more control over their funds.

DEXs use blockchain technology to enable direct peer-to-peer trading. This eliminates the need for a third party to hold user funds and allows users to trade cryptocurrencies without having to trust anyone else with their money.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

DeFi is made possible by blockchain technology, which allows users to store money and track transactions without relying on a third party. This makes it much more secure and efficient than traditional banking systems.

DeFi also allows for new kinds of financial products that wouldn’t be possible with a centralized system. For example, one popular DeFi product is called a “decentralized exchange,” which allows users to trade cryptocurrencies without relying on a third party to oversee the transaction.

Decentralized Governance

Decentralized Governance is a new way of managing a company or organization where the members are in control of the management and operation. This is done through the use of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. In a Decentralized Governance system, decisions are made through voting by the members and no one person has control over the organization. This allows for transparency and equality among the members.

Decentralized Identifier (DID)

DID is a decentralized identifier that uses blockchain technology to create and manage unique identifiers for individuals, organizations, things, and events. DIDs are intended to provide an easy way to unambiguously identify entities without the need for a central authority.

When you create a DID, you are given a public key and a private key. The public key is used to encrypt messages that are sent to the DID, and the private key is used to decrypt messages that are sent from the DID. The private key also allows you to control the DID’s associated blockchain address.

Decentralized Network

A decentralized network is a computer network where each participant can connect directly to any other participant. There is no central authority controlling the network, and instead it relies on a distributed consensus algorithm to ensure that all participants are in agreement on the state of the network. This makes them inherently more secure and resilient against attacks, as there is no single point of failure.

Decentralized Storage Network (DSN)

A decentralized storage network, or DSN, is a blockchain-based network that allows users to store files securely and anonymously. The DSN uses cryptocurrency to pay for storage space, and the files are distributed across the network using a peer-to-peer protocol. This makes the DSN more secure and less centralized than traditional storage networks.

One of the advantages of the DSN is its ability to scale. The size of the network can grow as needed, and there is no need for a central authority to manage it. This makes it ideal for storing large files or data sets.

The DSN is also more secure than traditional storage networks. Because the files are distributed across the network, they are less likely to be compromised if one of the nodes is attacked. And because there is no central authority, there is no single point of failure.

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS)

DPoS is a blockchain consensus algorithm that enables high throughput and low latency transactions. In a DPoS system, there are elected delegates who are responsible for validating transactions. These delegates are voted in by the community and can be replaced at any time. This allows for quick decision making and prevents any one individual from having too much control over the network.

Delegation

Delegation is a feature of some blockchains that allows token holders to vote for delegates who will then manage the blockchain on their behalf. The goal of delegation is to make the process of maintaining the blockchain more democratic and efficient. In many cases, delegates are rewarded for their work with transaction fees or new tokens.

Desktop Wallet

A desktop wallet is a software program that allows you to store, send and receive cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin from your computer.

Desktop wallets are often considered more secure than online wallets because your private keys are stored on your computer rather than on a third-party server.

However, desktop wallets can also be susceptible to hacking attacks, so it’s important to make sure you use a strong password and keep your computer up to date with the latest security patches.

There are a variety of different desktop wallets available, so it’s important to research which one is best for you. Some popular desktop wallets include Exodus, Coinomi and Electrum.

Digital Asset

A new kind of asset is emerging on the internet, and it’s called a digital asset. These assets exist on a blockchain, and are often used to represent cryptocurrency. One of the key benefits of owning a digital asset is that they are secure and cannot be counterfeited. This makes them ideal for use in transactions and as investment vehicles. Digital assets are also easy to trade, which makes them attractive to investors.

Digital Identity

One of the key features of blockchain technology is its ability to create a secure and transparent ledger. This makes it the perfect tool for creating digital identities that can be trusted by both individuals and organizations. In fact, there are a number of startups that are already using blockchain technology to create digital identities.

Digital Signature

A digital signature is a type of electronic signature that uses cryptography to authenticate the signer and to protect the integrity of the signed data. Digital signatures are commonly used for electronic documents, such as e-mail and software downloads. They also can be used to sign Web pages, messages, or other content.

A digital signature is created using a cryptographic algorithm. The algorithm takes the document to be signed and the signer’s private key and creates a unique hash or message digest of the document. The hash is then encrypted with the signer’s public key. This encrypted hash is what is actually attached to the document when it is signed. When someone else wants to verify the signature, they use the signer’s public key to decrypt the hash and compare it to the original hash of the document.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is a form of database technology that allows information to be shared and synchronized across multiple networked computers. This technology has been around for over a decade, but it has only recently gained attention due to its use in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. DLT is often referred to as “blockchain technology”, because the first successful implementation of this technology was the Bitcoin blockchain.

The key benefit of DLT is that it allows for secure, transparent and tamper-proof transactions without the need for a third party. This makes it an ideal solution for applications such as supply chain management, financial services and voting. DLT is also being explored as a way to create digital identities and record land ownership.

Double Spend Problem

The double spend problem is a vulnerability in blockchain technology that could allow a user to spend the same cryptocurrency twice. This problem occurs when a user sends a cryptocurrency to two different recipients at the same time. The user’s cryptocurrency is essentially divided between the two recipients, and the first recipient to receive the cryptocurrency will be able to spend it. The second recipient will not be able to spend the cryptocurrency because it has already been spent.

Dust

Dusts are tiny fractions of a cryptocurrency that are usually unspendable. They are created when someone sends a cryptocurrency transaction and the smallest unit of that currency is not enough to cover the fee. For example, when someone sends 0.00001 Bitcoin, they create 10 dusts.

Most cryptocurrencies have a limit on the amount of dust that can be created in a single transaction, but there is no limit to the number of transactions that can create dust. As a result, over time, the number of dusts in existence can grow very large.

Some people see dusts as a waste, while others see them as an opportunity. Since dusts are so small, they can be used to send payments with very low fees. This could make them useful for microtransactions or for sending payments in countries where traditional banking systems are not available.


E

EIP-1559

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 1559, or EIP-1559 for short, is a proposed change to the Ethereum codebase that would allow for more efficient verification of blocks on the blockchain. The proposal was submitted by Piper Merriam on October 10, 2018, and is currently under review.

Under the current Ethereum codebase, verifying a block can take up to 1 second.

EIP-1559 would reduce this time to around 0.1 seconds by allowing miners to verify transactions directly from the Merkle tree.

This would make the blockchain faster and more efficient, lowering transaction costs and making it easier for businesses to use Ethereum as a platform for their applications.

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)

A digital signature algorithm is a cryptographic algorithm used to create digital signatures. A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by the claimed sender, and that the message has not been altered since it was signed.

The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is a digital signature algorithm used in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. It is based on elliptic curve cryptography. ECDSA is used to provide authentication and integrity protection for messages and transactions on the Bitcoin network.

Encryption

Encryption is the process of transforming readable data into an unreadable format. The purpose of encryption is to protect information from unauthorized access. Encryption is used in a variety of applications, including email, file sharing, and secure communications.

Cryptography is the science of encryption. Cryptography dates back to ancient Greece, where mathematicians developed methods for disguising messages. In modern times, cryptography is used to protect information online.

Bitcoin is a digital currency that uses encryption to secure its transactions. Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer currency, meaning that transactions take place between users directly, without the need for a third party. Bitcoin is based on blockchain technology, which uses cryptography to keep track of transactions.

ERC-1155

The Ethereum blockchain is about to get a lot more interesting with the advent of a new token standard called ERC-1155. This standard, which was proposed by ConsenSys engineer Alex Van de Sande, allows for the creation of tokens with multiple attributes and data.

This could be a big deal for the Ethereum blockchain, as it would allow for the creation of more complex applications and contracts. It could also lead to the development of new types of tokens that can be used in a variety of different ways.

ERC-1155 is based on the ERC-20 standard, but it adds some additional features that should make it more versatile. These features include the ability to create tokens that are associated with other tokens, as well as the ability to store data in custom fields.

ERC-20

ERC-20 is a technical standard used for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain for implementing tokens. These tokens are digital assets that can represent a variety of things, from commodities to loyalty points to securities. ERC-20 defines a common list of rules that all Ethereum tokens must follow, making it easier for developers to create new tokens and for users to understand them.

ERC-721

ERC-721 is an Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) that defines a standard for tracking unique digital assets on the Ethereum blockchain. These assets are commonly known as “non-fungible tokens” (NFTs), and can be used to represent a wide variety of things, including digital artwork, collectible game cards, and real estate.

One of the main benefits of ERC-721 is that it allows developers to create decentralized marketplaces where users can buy, sell, or trade NFTs. This could potentially lead to a new wave of creativity and innovation in the cryptocurrency space. Another key advantage of ERC-721 is that it helps to prevent fraud and counterfeiting by ensuring that each token is unique and can’t be duplicated.

Escrow

Escrow is a service that allows two parties to exchange goods and money through a third party. The third party, or escrow agent, holds the goods or money until both parties agree that the transaction is complete. This helps to ensure that neither party can back out of the deal without penalty.

When two people want to do a transaction, they use an escrow agent to hold their money or goods. The escrow agent ensures that both parties follow through on the deal by confirming that the terms have been met. Once both parties agree that everything has gone smoothly, the escrow agent releases the funds or goods. Why Use Escrow?

Ethereum

Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of fraud or third party interference.

Ethereum works using blockchain technology. A blockchain is a digital ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. It is constantly growing as “completed” blocks are added to it with a new set of recordings.

Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data. Bitcoin nodes use the block chain to differentiate legitimate Bitcoin transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.applications.

Ether (ETH)

Ether is a cryptocurrency that is used to pay for services and products on the Ethereum blockchain. It is also used as a payment method for miners who verify transactions on the network. Ether can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participants in the network for their services.

Ether is based on the Ethereum blockchain, which uses smart contracts to automate transactions. These contracts are written in code, which allows them to be executed automatically when certain conditions are met. This eliminates the need for third-party intermediaries, such as banks, to complete transactions.

The Ethereum blockchain has several advantages over traditional banking systems.

Ethereum 2.0

The Ethereum network is preparing to switch to a new blockchain protocol called Ethereum 2.0, which will bring significant improvements in performance and scalability. The switch is scheduled for early 2020, and will require all users of the Ethereum network to update their software.

Ethereum 2.0 introduces a new type of blockchain called a “proof-of-stake” (PoS) blockchain, which replaces the current “proof-of-work” (PoW) system. PoS blockchains are more efficient and can handle more transactions per second than PoW blockchains.

The new Ethereum 2.0 protocol also includes a number of other enhancements, including sharding, which splits up the blockchain into smaller pieces that can be processed more quickly, and plasma, which allows for off-chain transactions that don’t need to be verified by the entire Ethereum network.

Ethereum Transaction

In Ethereum, a transaction is a message sent from one account to another, containing some information and a small fee. The fee is used to pay miners for their work in validating and committing the transaction to the blockchain.

The sender of a transaction must specify the recipient, the amount to be transferred, and the data to be included in the transaction. Transactions are encoded in binary data structures called “blobs”.

To prevent spamming of the network, each account can only send a limited number of transactions per day. In addition, each transaction must include a cryptographic signature created with the private key associated with the sending account.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a key component of the Ethereum blockchain. It is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows developers to create decentralized applications on the Ethereum network. The EVM executes smart contracts, which are programs that run on the blockchain and control the transfer of Ether and other tokens between accounts.

The EVM is based on the Bitcoin Virtual Machine, which was created by Gavin Wood, one of the co-founders of Ethereum. The EVM was designed to provide a more secure and efficient way to execute smart contracts than Bitcoin’s scripting language. The EVM is also faster and more memory efficient than Bitcoin’s VM.

Exchange

Exchanges are necessary to enable the transfer of funds between buyers and sellers, as well as to provide a platform for price discovery. There are a variety of exchanges available, with some catering to specific cryptocurrencies or countries.

The most popular exchange is Coinbase, which allows users to buy and sell Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin. The company has raised over $200 million in funding and has over 10 million users. Another large exchange is Bitfinex, which offers a wide variety of cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, IOTA, Monero, Dash, and Zcash. Bitfinex was hacked in 2016 and lost nearly 120,000 bitcoins.

Exchange Coin/Exchange Token

These tokens are used to power exchanges, and they can be used to obtain discounts on trading fees. They can also be used to get early access to new coins and tokens that are being listed on the exchange.

Exchange tokens are created through a process known as an initial coin offering (ICO). During an ICO, a company will sell a certain amount of its tokens in order to raise money for development purposes. The company will then use this money to develop its platform or product.

Exchange tokens are often based on the Ethereum blockchain. This is because Ethereum provides developers with the ability to create smart contracts. These contracts allow companies to create products that can be used by customers all over the world.

Extended Private Key (XPRIV)

An extended private key (XPRIV) is a feature of the Ethereum blockchain that allows for increased security and privacy. XPRIV allows users to keep their private keys offline and only use them when needed. This helps protect against theft and loss of funds. XPRIV is also useful for preventing unauthorized access to user accounts.

Extended Public Key (XPUB)

In the cryptocurrency world, there are a variety of different keys that allow users to interact with the blockchain in different ways. One of these keys is an Extended Public Key (XPUB). An XPUB is a public key that is used to derive an extended private key. The extended private key can be used to sign transactions on behalf of the owner of the XPUB.

The XPUB is generated by taking the public key and hashing it with SHA-512. The resulting hash is then divided by two, and the remainder is used as the extended private key. This process can be repeated multiple times to create multiple extended private keys.

The XPUB can be shared with anyone who wants to send transactions on behalf of the owner of the XPUB.


F

Federated Byzantine Agreement

A federated Byzantine agreement (FBA) is a blockchain protocol that allows for the secure exchange of data and value among a consortium of nodes without the need for a central authority. FBA networks are built on top of existing blockchain technologies such as Ethereum, and can be used to create decentralized applications (dApps) that require trust among a group of participants.

FBA networks are able to achieve consensus through the use of quorums, which are groups of nodes that are able to verify transactions. In order to form a quorum, a set of nodes must first agree on a protocol that will be used to reach consensus. Once the quorum has been established, the nodes within it can begin verifying transactions and adding them to the blockchain.

Federated Byzantine agreement networks offer several advantages over traditional centralized systems.

Fiat-Backed Stablecoin

The Ethereum Foundation has announced a new project called “Fiat-Backed Stablecoin.” The new project is designed to create a stablecoin that is backed by fiat currencies. The new stablecoin will be based on the Ethereum blockchain and will use the ERC20 standard.

The goal of the new project is to create a more reliable and stable cryptocurrency that can be used for transactions and payments. The Ethereum Foundation believes that the new stablecoin will help to promote wider adoption of Ethereum-based applications.

Fiat Currency

Fiat currency is a government-backed currency that is not backed by any physical commodity. The article discusses the benefits of fiat currency and how it has become the standard for international trade. The article also discusses the potential drawbacks of fiat currency, including its susceptibility to inflation and manipulation by governments and central banks.

Fiat On-Ramp

If you’re not familiar with the term, “on-ramp” in the cryptocurrency world refers to an easy way for newcomers to get into a digital asset. For Bitcoin, there are dozens of exchanges that allow users to buy and sell BTC using various fiat currencies. Ethereum is no different, with a variety of on-ramps available for those looking to get their hands on some ETH.

One of the most popular on-ramps for Ethereum is Coinbase. The company allows users to buy ETH with a credit or debit card, as well as through bank transfers. Another popular option is Bitstamp, which allows users to buy and sell ETH using euros and US dollars.

Flash Loans

Flash loans are a new type of loan that is made possible by blockchain technology and ethereum smart contracts. They are designed to be fast, secure, and convenient.

A flash loan is created by sending a request to an ethereum smart contract. The contract will then automatically create a new loan and send the funds to the borrower. The entire process takes just seconds, and there is no need for a credit check or other traditional lending procedures.

The name “flash loans” comes from the fact that they can be created very quickly. In just seconds, you can have the funds you need to cover an unexpected expense or make a important purchase.

Forging

Forging is an important part of the Ethereum blockchain. Forgers are responsible for creating new blocks and including transactions in them. This is a crucial role, as it ensures that the blockchain remains secure and functional. In order to become a forger, a person must hold a certain amount of ether and be able to run a node. They are also responsible for verifying transactions and adding them to the blockchain.

Fork

A fork is a change to the software of a blockchain that creates two separate blockchains, each with its own set of rules. Forks can be intentional or accidental. When a fork happens, the blockchain splits into two paths and miners support one or the other path. The original path is called the “main chain” and the new path is called a “fork.”

After a fork, there is typically a race to amass more hashing power on the winning side in order to create new blocks and confirm transactions faster than the other chain. This can lead to big changes in price as well as confidence in each blockchain. Forking Ethereum gave birth to Ethereum Classic, which continues to exist today.

Fungibility

In essence, it is the property of a good or asset that renders it interchangeable with another good or asset of the same type. Fungibility is often thought of as a key property of money, but it is also essential for other assets such as stocks and commodities.

The reason why fungibility is so important for money is that it allows for the seamless circulation of currency. If every dollar was unique and identifiable, then every time someone wanted to spend a dollar they would have to hand over the specific note that they were spending. This would create major practical problems and could severely impede the flow of commerce.


G

Gas

To understand gas in the Ethereum network, it is important to first understand what miners do in the network. Miners are responsible for validating transactions and adding them to the blockchain. In order to do this, they use their computing power to solve a complex mathematical problem. The first miner to solve the problem is rewarded with ether, and their solution is added to the blockchain.

The amount of gas required to execute a transaction is determined by the complexity of the transaction. For example, a simple transaction that just sends ether from one account to another will require less gas than a transaction that involves creating a new contract.

One of the benefits of using gas is that it allows transactions to be processed quickly and efficiently. Transactions that require more gas will take longer to process than those that require less gas.

Genesis Block

A genesis block is the first block of a blockchain. It is created when the blockchain is initialized. The genesis block contains the initial distribution of coins, and may also contain a message from the creator of the blockchain.

It is often called the “Block 0” or “Block 1.” The Genesis Block is created when the network first starts up. It contains the first transactions in the blockchain and a reference to the previous block.

Governance Token

Governance tokens are tokens that are used to govern a decentralized organization or system. Governance tokens can be used to vote on important decisions, manage the organization’s funds, or appoint new members to the organization.

Governance tokens are often used in blockchain-based organizations, such as Ethereum-based organizations. Ethereum is a decentralized platform that allows developers to create and use applications that run on a blockchain. Ethereum-based organizations can use governance tokens to vote on important decisions, manage their funds, and appoint new members to the organization.

Governance tokens can also be used in other types of decentralized organizations, such as decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs). DAOs are organizations that are controlled by a set of rules that are encoded in a smart contract on a blockchain.

Gwei

Gwei is a term used in the Ethereum blockchain to describe a unit of measurement for the cost of a transaction.

When sending ether, or any other asset on the Ethereum blockchain, you are actually spending gas. The amount of gas you need to spend is based on the complexity of the transaction and the current load on the network.

The cost of a transaction is measured in gwei. 1 gwei is equivalent to 0.000000001 ETH. So, if you want to send 1 ETH, your transaction would cost 100,000 gwei.


H

Hard Fork

A hard fork is a change to the underlying protocol of a blockchain that makes previously invalid blocks or transactions valid, and vice versa. This usually happens when there is a disagreement among the community over the proposed changes.

Hard forks are often necessary because they allow the blockchain to grow and evolve. For example, Ethereum implemented a hard fork in order to create Ethereum Classic after the DAO hack.

Not necessarily. For example, Bitcoin Cash was created as a result of a hard fork from Bitcoin, but it has failed to gain traction compared to Bitcoin.

Hardware Wallet

A hardware wallet is a physical device used to store cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. Hardware wallets are created as a way to securely store digital currencies offline, away from the potential dangers of the internet. They work by generating and storing private keys within the device itself. These private keys cannot be accessed or used without the physical device, making them much more secure than wallets that are stored online.

Halving

The halving is an important event that happens every four years on the ethereum blockchain. It cuts the rewards given to miners in half, in an effort to maintain inflation at a steady pace. This event is significant because it helps to ensure that the value of ether does not increase too quickly.

Additionally, it encourages miners to continue to participate in the network, as their rewards will be reduced over time.

Hash

A hash is a function that converts an input of any length into an output of a fixed length. The hash function is designed so that it is very difficult to produce a hash from a text that is different from the original text. Hash functions are used in many cryptographic applications, such as digital signatures and message authentication codes.

The most well-known use of hashes is in the creation of blockchain technologies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. In these systems, each block in the chain is created by hashing the previous block’s header with a random number called a nonce. This creates a unique hash for each new block, which can be used to verify its authenticity.

Hash Rate

The hash rate is the speed at which a computer can complete an operation in the blockchain. It is measured in hashes per second. The higher the hash rate, the faster the computer can mine blocks and receive rewards. Ethereum’s hash rate has been steadily increasing since it was first released in 2015. This is due to its popularity and the increase in mining difficulty. As more people mine Ethereum, the higher the hash rate will be.

Hierarchical-Deterministic (HD) Wallet

They are hierarchical deterministic wallets. This means that you can have multiple public addresses and private keys, each with its own set of bitcoins. You create a new address and key for every transaction, making it harder for someone to track your activity. If you lose your wallet, you can restore it from its seed.

HODL

HODL is a term used in the cryptocurrency community to describe holding onto your coins and not selling them. The term is derived from a misspelled post on an online forum from someone who bought bitcoin at $1 and then forgot about it. The user urges others to HODL their coins, because they will be worth more in the future.

People hold their coins for a number of reasons, including speculation that the price will go up in the future, faith in the project or team behind the coin, or belief that the coin will be used for everyday transactions.

Horizontal Scalability

Horizontal scalability is what allows cryptocurrencies to be used for global payments. Since each unit can be divided into smaller parts, it’s possible to send very small payments anywhere in the world without having to worry about exchange rates or fees.

Hot Wallet

A hot wallet is a digital asset wallet that is connected to the internet. This type of wallet allows for quick and easy access to your digital assets. Hot wallets can be used to store a variety of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin. They are also popular among users who want to trade on cryptocurrency exchanges.

Hybrid Network

A Hybrid Network is a network that uses a combination of centralized and decentralized nodes. A Hybrid Network is often used to increase security and redundancy. While a traditional centralized network can be hacked or go offline, a hybrid network can still function because of the decentralized nodes. Additionally, cryptocurrency can be used to incentivize users to join the network and act as nodes.


I

Immutability

Immutability is one of the key features that make blockchain technology so valuable. Once data has been entered into the blockchain, it is virtually impossible to change or remove it. This makes the blockchain a secure and reliable source of information, which is why it is often used for recording financial transactions.

The immutability of the blockchain is also what allows it to be used for creating digital assets and cryptocurrencies. These assets are stored on the blockchain in a secure and tamper-proof manner, which prevents them from being stolen or destroyed.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a fundraising mechanism in which new projects sell their underlying crypto tokens in exchange for bitcoin and ether. It’s somewhat similar to an Initial Public Offering (IPO) in which investors purchase shares of a company. ICOs are often used by start-ups to bypass the rigorous and regulated capital-raising process required by venture capitalists or banks.

In an ICO, a percentage of the cryptocurrency is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin or Ether. These coins are often called tokens and are similar to shares of a company sold to investors in an IPO transaction. Early backers are motivated to buy into the ICO because they believe in the project and want to see it succeed. In many cases, they hope to later sell their tokens on a secondary market at a higher price.

Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)

An Initial Exchange Offering (IEO) is a fundraising event that allows blockchain startups to raise money by issuing tokens on an exchange. IEOs are becoming increasingly popular because they offer several advantages over traditional initial coin offerings (ICOs). For example, IEOs are more secure because they take place on an exchange, which vets the projects that participate. IEOs also provide access to a large pool of potential investors, and they can help boost a project’s profile and legitimize it in the eyes of potential users.

Interoperability

Interoperability is the ability for different computer systems to exchange and use information. In the context of blockchain technology, this means that different blockchains can communicate with each other. For example, it would be possible to send Bitcoin to someone on the Ethereum blockchain, or to use Ethereum smart contracts in a Bitcoin transaction.

Interoperability is made possible by using a common protocol between different blockchains. The most well-known protocol is called Interledger Protocol (ILP), which was developed by Ripple. ILP allows different blockchains to send payments to each other through intermediaries called “connectors”. These connectors act as bridges between different blockchains, and can be used to exchange any type of asset, including cryptocurrencies, fiat currencies, and commodities.

One of the advantages of interoperability is that it allows for more experimentation with blockchain technology.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

In layman’s terms, IPFS is a distributed file storage system. It’s similar to the BitTorrent protocol, but it’s designed to be more efficient and secure.

IPFS uses a blockchain-based peer-to-peer network to store files.This means that there is no central server or administrator. Instead, the files are stored on a global network of computers.

IPFS works by linking files together into a “hashgraph”.  This means that each file is given a unique identifier, and can be accessed by anyone on the network.

IPFS also uses encryption technology to protect your data from prying eyes.


J

JavaScript (JS)

JavaScript is on the rise. While it has been used for years to create simple web pages and scripts, its potential is now being realized in more complex ways. JavaScript is being used in conjunction with blockchain technology to create decentralized applications, or dapps.

One of the most popular uses of JavaScript and blockchain technology is in the creation of Ethereum smart contracts. These contracts are executed by nodes on the Ethereum network and rely on JavaScript to function. They allow for a wide range of possibilities, from simple betting games to more complex applications like decentralized exchanges.

JavaScript’s flexibility and ease of use make it an ideal language for creating dapps. It can be used by anyone, regardless of their programming experience, and allows for a high degree of customization. Additionally, as blockchain technology becomes more popular, the demand for JavaScript developers will continue to grow.


K

Keys

A cryptographic key is a sequence of bits that is used to lock and unlock data. Keys are used in a variety of cryptographic algorithms, including symmetric-key algorithms and public-key cryptography. Symmetric-key algorithms use the same key to encrypt and decrypt data, while public-key cryptography uses two different keys: a public key and a private key.

Public-key cryptography is more secure than symmetric-key cryptography because it is harder to guess the private key from the public key. The most common type of public-key algorithm is RSA, which was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman.

Cryptographic keys are an essential part of blockchain technology. In addition to being used to encrypt and decrypt data, they are also used to create digital signatures.


L

Layer-Two Solution

A layer-two solution is a proposed solution to a problem that is built on top of an already existing solution. Layer-two solutions are often used in blockchain technology, where the first layer is the basic blockchain protocol and the second layer is an application or protocol that builds on top of the blockchain. Ethereum is an example of a layer-two solution, as it uses the basic blockchain protocol to create a decentralized platform for applications.

Ledger

A ledger is a record of financial transactions. The use of a ledger dates back to the ancient Egyptians, who used papyrus scrolls to record business transactions. Today, ledgers are digital and use blockchain technology.

Blockchain is a distributed database that allows for secure, transparent and tamper-proof recording of transactions. Ethereum is a blockchain platform that allows for the development of decentralized applications.

Together, Ethereum and blockchain technology can be used to create a secure ledger for financial transactions. This could revolutionize the way businesses operate and could eliminate the need for third-party intermediaries such as banks.

Light-Client Node

A light-client node allows users to store a small amount of Ethereum on their computer, phone, or other device. This makes it possible to send and receive transactions without having to download the entire blockchain. Light-client nodes also make it possible to participate in decentralized applications (dapps) that require the use of Ethereum.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a proposed solution to the bitcoin scalability problem. It is a payment network built on top of bitcoin that would allow for instant transactions with very low fees. Transactions are not processed on the blockchain, but rather through a network of participants who agree to open and close payment channels between each other. This allows for much faster transactions since they do not need to be verified by the entire network.


M

Machine-To-Machine (M2M)

The term “Machine-To-Machine” (M2M) is used to describe the communication between two or more machines. This communication can be used for a variety of purposes, such as monitoring and controlling processes, collecting data, or automating tasks.

One of the applications of M2M communication is in the area of Blockchain technology. For example, Ethereum is using M2M communication to create a network of decentralized applications. In this context, M2M refers to the interaction between nodes on the network.

One of the advantages of using M2M communication in a Blockchain application is that it can help to prevent centralization. By using a distributed network, it is harder for any one party to control the system. This makes it more difficult for anyone to tamper with or hack into the system.

Mainnet

A mainnet is the live network of a blockchain project where coins and tokens are actually used. This is in contrast to testnets, which are used for testing purposes. Most blockchains have at least one mainnet and often multiple ones. For example, Ethereum has both the Ethereum mainnet and the Ethereum Classic mainnet. Mainnets are important because they’re where users can actually use the coins and tokens they’re buying or earning. They’re also where miners can earn rewards by verifying transactions. In order to use a coin or token on a mainnet, you need to have an account with a cryptocurrency exchange that supports that coin or token.

Merkle Tree

Merkle trees are a data structure used to verify the integrity of data. They are created by hashing pairs of data, then linking the hashes together. This creates a tree-like structure in which the path from the root to any leaf represents a single hash. If any part of the data is changed, the hash will change, and so will the path to the leaf. This allows for easy identification of changes to the data.

Merkle trees are used in blockchains to verify transactions. Every time a new block is created, its hash is calculated and added to the end of the Merkle tree. The hashes of all previous blocks are also included, forming a chain that can be used to verify the integrity of the entire blockchain.

MetaMask

MetaMask is a free, open source, browser-based wallet that allows you to store and use your Ethereum tokens. The wallet can be used to interact with dApps on the Ethereum network. MetaMask supports Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and Brave browsers. The wallet can be used to store Ether and other ERC20 tokens.

It also allows you to easily interact with the Ethereum network. MetaMask includes a built-in decentralized exchange (DEX) that lets you trade Ether and tokens directly from your wallet. You can also use MetaMask to sign transactions and access decentralized applications (dApps).

Miner

Mining is an important part of the blockchain. Miners are the ones who secure the network and keep it running. They are rewarded with bitcoin for their work. In order to mine, you need a computer and special software. You also need to join a mining pool.

Mining is how new Bitcoin and Ethereum are created. Miners are rewarded with cryptocurrency for verifying and committing transactions to the blockchain.

Ethereum miners are rewarded based on their share of work done, rather than their share of the total number of blocks mined. Bitcoin miners are awarded a fixed amount of bitcoins every time they mine a block.

Mining

Mining is a process that creates new bitcoins and helps to secure the blockchain. It is the process of verifying and committing transactions to the blockchain. Miners are rewarded with bitcoin for verifying and committing transactions. Ethereum miners are rewarded with ether.

Mining Pool

A mining pool is a way for Bitcoin and Ethereum miners to combine their resources to increase their chances of solving a block and earning the payout. Joining a mining pool is the best way to earn consistent payouts from mining without having to invest in expensive hardware.

Mining pools are groups of miners who work together to solve blocks. When a miner in a pool solves a block, they are rewarded with a portion of the payout. The size of the payout depends on the size of the pool’s hashrate (the number of hashes it can generate per second).

The most popular mining pools are Bitcoin and Ethereum miners. There are dozens of different pools to choose from, but some of the most popular ones include Bitmain, F2Pool, and AntPool.

Mining Rewards

Mining rewards are a key incentive that drives miners to secure the blockchain and process transactions. Miners are rewarded with newly created bitcoins and transaction fees for every block they mine. The reward for mining a block decreases over time, and will eventually drop to zero. This decrease in rewards will incentivize miners to continue to secure the blockchain and process transactions.

Mining Rig

Cryptocurrency mining rigs can be used to mine Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other altcoins. They are special computers built for the sole purpose of mining cryptocurrencies.

Mining rigs require a lot of processing power to function correctly. They usually consist of high-end graphics cards and processors. Some miners also use ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits) to increase their mining power.

Mining rigs can be expensive and difficult to build. However, they can be very profitable if used correctly.

Mobile Wallet

A mobile wallet is a digital wallet where you can store, send, and receive your cryptocurrency. Mobile wallets provide a convenient way to manage your funds on the go. They are available as apps for your smartphone or tablet.

Most mobile wallets support Bitcoin and Ethereum, and some also support other cryptocurrencies. They provide a user-friendly interface and allow you to conduct transactions quickly and easily.

Mobile wallets are a great option for storing small amounts of cryptocurrency, but they should not be used as a storage solution for large sums of money. It is always important to keep your funds safe and secure, so be sure to use a strong password and enable two-factor authentication when possible.

More Viable Plasma (MoreVP)

Plasma is a proposed solution to the scaling issues faced by blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum. The original Plasma proposal was put forward by Vitalik Buterin and Joseph Poon in August 2017. MoreVP is an update to the Plasma protocol that makes it more viable for real-world use cases.

MoreVP allows for smaller plasma chains to be connected to a main chain, which reduces the load on the main chain. This makes Plasma more efficient and scalable, and allows for faster transactions. MoreVP also eliminates the need for checkpoints, which reduces the risk of double spending attacks.

The developers of MoreVP are currently working on a proof of concept implementation, which they plan to release in Q1 2019.

Multifactor Authentication

Multifactor authentication is a security process that requires more than one method of authentication from independent categories of credentials to verify the user’s identity. Multifactor authentication can be a username and password combination, plus a security token like a code sent to the user’s mobile phone.

Multifactor authentication is considered more secure than single-factor authentication, which relies only on one method of verification such as a password. Multifactor authentication is used in many industries including financial services, healthcare, and government.

The use of multifactor authentication is increasing due to the number of data breaches and the need for stronger security. In addition, there is an increased focus on using blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and ethereum for multifactor authentication. Blockchain technology provides a secure way to store data, and cryptocurrencies can be used as security tokens.

Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig) Wallet

A Multi-Signature Wallet, also known as a Multi-Sig Wallet, is a Bitcoin and Ethereum wallet that allows multiple people to own and control the funds within it. This type of wallet requires more than one person to sign off on transactions in order for them to be executed. This makes it a more secure way to store your funds, as it requires multiple people to approve transactions before they can take place.

Multi-Signature Wallets are often used by businesses and organizations who want to ensure that their funds are secure, and that only authorized individuals have access to them. They can also be used by individuals who want to add an extra layer of security to their Bitcoin or Ethereum holdings.


N

Node

Nodes are the backbone of blockchain technology. They are responsible for verifying transactions and maintaining the blockchain. In Bitcoin, nodes are rewarded with bitcoins for their work. In Ethereum, they are rewarded with ether.

A node connects to other nodes to form a network. This network is responsible for verifying transactions and maintaining the blockchain. Nodes also store a copy of the blockchain so that they can verify transactions independently.

Nonce

A nonce is an arbitrary number that is used only once in a cryptographic communication. Nonces are used in proof-of-work systems to make sure that the data being hashed has not been seen before. Bitcoin and Ethereum use nonces as part of their block hashing algorithms.

Non-Custodial Wallet

A non-custodial wallet is a type of digital wallet that does not store user funds on its servers. This means that the user retains control over their funds at all times, eliminating the possibility of theft or fraud. Non-custodial wallets are often hailed as one of the safest and most user-friendly options available, as they provide a high level of security without sacrificing convenience.

There are a number of different types of non-custodial wallets available, including desktop, mobile, and hardware wallets. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, so it’s important to do your research before deciding which one is right for you.

Desktop wallets are software programs that are downloaded and installed on your computer. They offer a high level of security but can be inconvenient to use if you’re not always online.

Non-Deterministic (ND) Wallet

A ND wallet stores private keys in a way that makes them impossible to predict. This provides an extra layer of security for users, as it’s impossible for someone to steal their funds if they don’t know the private key.

ND wallets are often used in conjunction with other security measures, such as 2-factor authentication, to create a more robust user experience.

ND wallets are important because they provide an extra layer of security for users. With traditional deterministic (D) wallets, if someone knows your address and password, they can easily steal your funds. ND wallets make this impossible by generating new addresses and passwords for each transaction. This makes it difficult for someone to track your transactions or steal your funds.

Non-Fungibility

Non-fungibility is a property of some objects whereby they are not interchangeable with others of the same kind. In the context of blockchains, non-fungibility refers to tokens which are not identical and cannot be replaced with each other. Bitcoin and Ethereum are two examples of fungible tokens. This means that if you have 10 Bitcoins and someone else has 10 Bitcoins, you can trade your coins with the other person without any issues. However, if you have 10 Monero (an example of a non-fungible token) and someone else has 10 Monero, you cannot trade your coins with the other person because they are not identical. Non-fungibility is an important property of blockchain ecosystems because it allows for the creation of unique assets which can be used in a variety of applications.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are digital assets that are not interchangeable. Each token is unique and has its own history and characteristics. They are often used to represent unique items or experiences, such as a virtual asset in a video game or a collectible card. NFTs are created on blockchain platforms such as Ethereum, where each token is assigned a specific ERC-721 standard code.

It is the property of something that cannot be substituted for another of equal value. In the context of cryptocurrency, this means that every unit or token is unique and has its own specific value. This is in contrast to fungibility, which is the property of something that can be easily replaced by another unit of equal value.


O

Off-Chain

Off-chain solutions are those that do not use the blockchain. Bitcoin and Ethereum are two examples of blockchains that can use off-chain solutions. There are several benefits to using off-chain solutions. Off-chain solutions can be faster and more scalable than blockchains. They can also be more private because they do not share data with all nodes on the blockchain.

Off-Chain Governance

Governance is a critical component of any system, and blockchains are no exception. Off-chain governance mechanisms are needed to ensure that blockchain networks can continue to function effectively even as they grow in size and complexity.

Bitcoin and Ethereum both use on-chain governance mechanisms, which allow users to vote on changes to the protocol using their tokens. However, these mechanisms can be slow and cumbersome, and they may not be suitable for large networks with many stakeholders.

Off-chain governance mechanisms can include voting pools, arbitration services, oracle services, and more. These mechanisms allow decisions about the network to be made quickly and efficiently, without bogging down the network with unnecessary transactions.

On-Chain

The on-chain ecosystem is one of the most important aspects of blockchain technology. On-chain transactions are those that take place on the blockchain itself, as opposed to off-chain transactions, which occur outside of the blockchain. Bitcoin and Ethereum are two of the most popular blockchains, and they both have different on-chain ecosystems.

Bitcoin’s on-chain ecosystem is based on transaction fees. Miners earn these fees by verifying and confirming transactions on the blockchain. Ethereum’s on-chain ecosystem, in contrast, is based on gas prices. Transactions cost a certain amount of gas to execute, and miners earn gas by verifying and confirming transactions.

Both Bitcoin and Ethereum have their own unique on-chain ecosystems that have developed over time. These ecosystems are important because they help to secure the blockchain and ensure its proper functioning.

On-Chain Governance

On-chain governance is the ability of blockchain users to vote on changes to the protocol. The first blockchain, Bitcoin, has a very limited form of on-chain governance that allows users to vote on changes to the protocol that only affect the Bitcoin network. Ethereum, the second largest blockchain by market cap, has a more robust on-chain governance system that allows users to vote on changes to the protocol that can affect all Ethereum networks. On-chain governance is an important tool for blockchain networks because it allows users to democratically decide how the network should be run.

Open Finance

Open finance is a term used to describe the new wave of financial products and services that rely on blockchain technology and decentralized protocols. These products include decentralized exchanges, tokenized securities, and peer-to-peer lending.

The key advantage of open finance products is that they are trustless and transparent. This means that there is no need for a third party to verify or enforce transactions. Decentralized exchanges, for example, allow users to trade tokens without having to trust the exchange itself.

Oracles

An oracle is a service that provides information to a blockchain. Oracles may provide data from outside sources, such as the price of gold or the weather, or they may provide data generated by the blockchain itself, such as the number of transactions on the network. Oracles are used to provide information to smart contracts, which are contracts that are executed automatically when certain conditions are met.

Oracles are an important part of blockchains because they allow blockchains to interface with the real world. Smart contracts can’t do anything without information from oracles, so oracles are essential for creating useful applications on blockchains. There are a number of different oracle services available, and more are being created all the time.

Oracles are also important for security reasons. Because oracles provide information to smart contracts, they can be used to execute malicious code.

Orphaned Blocks

Blocks are considered orphaned when they are created but not attached to the main blockchain. This can happen when two miners create a block at the same time. The first miner to solve the equation and announce their block will have it added to the main chain. The other block will be orphaned.

Orphaned blocks can also occur when a blockchain splits into two separate chains. In this case, the block will be added to one of the chains, but not the other.

Orphaned blocks can have a negative impact on a cryptocurrency’s network. They can slow down transaction processing times and increase fees.


P

Paper Wallet

A paper wallet is a document that contains all of the information necessary to generate any number of Bitcoin or Ethereum addresses, as well as the corresponding private keys. They are often used as a more secure alternative to storing cryptocurrencies on online exchanges or digital wallets.

Creating a paper wallet is simple. You can use a website like bitaddress.org, which allows you to create a new paper wallet by typing in your desired cryptocurrency address and selecting how many addresses you want to generate. The site will then provide you with a series of printable QR codes, one for each address and its corresponding private key.

Alternatively, you can use an app like MyEtherWallet to create paper wallets on your mobile device. Simply select “Create New Wallet” and choose “Paper Wallet”.

Passive Yield

Passive yield is the amount of income generated from an asset relative to the price paid for that asset. The yield can be generated through rental income, dividends, or interest payments.

In the world of blockchain technology and digital currencies, there are a few assets that offer a high passive yield. Bitcoin, for example, has a current passive yield of approximately 2%. Ethereum offers a passive yield of approximately 4%. These yields are generated by holding these assets in a digital wallet and collecting the associated rewards.

Investors should always do their own research before investing in any asset, but those looking for high-yield opportunities should certainly consider blockchain-based assets like Bitcoin and Ethereum.

Passphrase

A passphrase is a sequence of words or characters used to protect an account or to authenticate a user. Passphrases are often used in conjunction with two-factor authentication. A passphrase can be any length, but is typically between 8 and 20 characters long.

Passphrases are more secure than passwords because they are longer and harder to guess. They are also less likely to be compromised if stolen or leaked. Passphrases can be used with any type of account, including email accounts, bank accounts, and cryptocurrency wallets.

Many cryptocurrency wallets allow users to set up a recovery phrase in the event that they lose their password or passphrase. This recovery phrase can be used to restore access to the wallet and all of its contents.

Peer to Peer (P2P)

A peer to peer network is a network where nodes are equal. There is no hierarchy and no single point of failure. This type of network can be incredibly resilient because there is no central authority to take down. Peer to peer networks were originally created for file sharing, but they can be used for other applications as well.

One of the most popular applications for peer to peer networking is cryptocurrency. Bitcoin and Ethereum are both based on blockchain technology, which is a type of peer to peer network. Blockchain technology is becoming more and more popular because it is secure and efficient.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending

P2P lending is a way of borrowing money by getting a loan from someone else rather than a bank. It cuts out the middleman, so you can borrow money at a lower interest rate.  

Borrowers and lenders are connected through a website or app. The borrower submits a request for a loan, and the lender chooses to invest in that loan. The website then takes care of the rest, including collecting repayments and distributing interest payments.

P2P lending offers borrowers the chance to get cheaper loans, while lenders can earn higher returns on their investment. There is also less risk for both parties involved, as loans are spread across many different borrowers.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Marketplace

A P2P (peer-to-peer) marketplace is a decentralized platform that allows buyers and sellers to transact with each other directly. This eliminates the need for a third party, such as a bank or government, to mediate the transaction.

The P2P marketplace operates using blockchain technology. This is a distributed database that allows users to make and verify transactions without the need for a middleman. Blockchain technology is secure and transparent, meaning that buyers and sellers can trust that the transactions will be executed accurately and fairly.

P2P marketplaces offer several advantages over traditional centralized marketplaces.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network

A peer-to-peer network is a decentralized network of computers that communicate and share resources with each other. Peers in a P2P network can be both servers and clients. Servers host the resources and clients request and use these resources. P2P networks are often used for file sharing, but can also be used for other purposes such as messaging, gaming, or distributing content.

One of the key features of P2P networks is that they are distributed. This means that there is no central point of control or failure. If one peer goes offline, the rest of the network can continue to function. This also makes P2P networks resistant to censorship.

Another key feature of P2P networks is their ability to use cryptography to secure communications and transactions.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Trading

Peer-to-peer (P2P) trading is the process of buying and selling goods and services between two individuals without the use of a third party. P2P trading has been around for centuries, but it has gained popularity in recent years thanks to the internet.

There are a few different ways to conduct P2P trades. Some platforms, like eBay, allow buyers and sellers to connect directly with each other. Other platforms use a middleman, such as an escrow service, to mediate the trade.

One of the biggest benefits of P2P trading is that it cuts out the middleman.

Permissionless Innovation

In the early days of the internet, there was a great deal of innovation without permission. This led to a number of groundbreaking advances, including the creation of the world wide web, email, and the first search engines.

This spirit of permissionless innovation has continued to thrive in the blockchain space. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other blockchain projects have been developed without seeking approval from any central authority. This has allowed for a tremendous amount of creativity and experimentation, leading to a number of new applications and use cases for blockchain technology.

While permissionless innovation can lead to some risk taking and chaos, it is also responsible for much of the progress that has been made in this space. By allowing anyone to create new projects and applications without restriction, we are paving the way for continued innovation and growth in the blockchain industry.

Pre-Mining

Pre-Mining refers to the process where a cryptocurrency is created and released before the actual mining process begins. This can be done through a variety of ways such as a pre-sale, airdrop or initial coin offering (ICO). Pre-mining can be seen as an unfair advantage to early investors as they are able to purchase coins at a lower price than those who participate in the actual mining process.

Private Key

A private key is a secret piece of data that allows you to access your cryptocurrency. It is a string of characters, typically a long sequence of numbers and letters. Each cryptocurrency has its own private key format.

A private key is essential for accessing your cryptocurrency funds. It is used to sign transactions, providing proof of ownership. Without the private key, you cannot access your funds or send any transactions.

Your private key is stored in a wallet file on your computer. The location of this file depends on the type of wallet you are using. For example, if you are using the Bitcoin Core wallet, the file is called “wallet.

Private Blockchain (Permissioned)

A private blockchain is a blockchain where the participants are known and approved ahead of time. This is in contrast to public blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum, where anyone can join the network and participate in the consensus process.

Private blockchains are often used by businesses to create a permissioned network where only authorized members can participate. This allows businesses to control who has access to the network and what information is shared among participants.

Private blockchains can also be used to improve security and privacy. By limiting access to the network, businesses can reduce the risk of cyber attacks and data breaches. Private blockchains can also keep transaction data private, which is important for businesses that want to keep their trade secrets confidential.

Proof of Authority (PoA)

Proof of Authority (PoA) is a consensus algorithm that is used in blockchain networks to achieve distributed consensus. In a Proof of Authority network, only approved nodes are allowed to participate in the consensus process. These nodes are called validators or witnesses. The purpose of PoA is to ensure that only authorized nodes are able to make changes to the blockchain, which helps to maintain its security and integrity.

Bitcoin and Ethereum both use Proof of Work as their consensus algorithm. However, there is interest in developing alternative consensus algorithms that could be more efficient and scalable. Proof of Authority is one such algorithm that has been gaining traction in recent years.

There are several benefits of using Proof of Authority over other consensus algorithms such as Proof of Work. First, it is much more efficient and can handle higher transaction volumes than other algorithms.

Proof of History (PoH)

Proof of History (PoH) is a new technology that enables secure timestamping of digital documents on the blockchain. PoH uses a cryptographic method called Merkle trees to create a permanent and tamper-proof record of document history. By using the blockchain, PoH provides an unalterable record of events that cannot be changed or deleted. This makes it ideal for timestamping documents, contracts, or other valuable data.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm used by blockchain networks to secure their transactions and to prevent fraudulent activities. PoS works differently than proof of work (PoW), which is the algorithm currently used by Bitcoin and Ethereum. With PoW, miners compete against each other to solve complex mathematical problems in order to verify transactions and add them to the blockchain. The first miner to solve the problem is rewarded with new bitcoin, while all other miners are left with nothing.

With PoS, network participants are instead rewarded based on their ownership stake in the network. The more tokens or coins someone holds, the more likely they are to be chosen to verify transactions and earn rewards. This helps to ensure that those who own the most tokens have a financial incentive to help maintain the network.

Proof of Work (PoW)

Proof of work is the fundamental consensus mechanism in blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum. In a proof of work system, miners must solve a difficult mathematical problem in order to add a new block to the blockchain. The miner who solves the problem first is rewarded with new cryptocurrency and transaction fees.

Proof of work is motivated by the need to prevent denial of service attacks. In a denial of service attack, an attacker tries to overwhelm the network with bogus transactions. Proof of work makes it expensive for an attacker to mount a denial of service attack, because it requires them to compute a lot of useless math problems.

Public Address

Public address is a term used in blockchain technology. It is an alphanumeric string that represents a destination for cryptocurrency or digital assets. For example, when you want to send bitcoin to someone, you need to know their public address. The public address is also where you would receive payments from others.

Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum are built on blockchain technology. A blockchain is a digital ledger of all transactions that have ever taken place on the network. This ledger is distributed among all of the nodes (computers) on the network, so it is transparent and secure.

One of the key features of blockchain technology is that it allows for pseudonymous transactions. This means that users can remain anonymous, while still verifying the authenticity of each transaction. Transactions are verified by consensus among all of the nodes on the network.

Public and Private Keys

Public and private keys are essential to using blockchain technology. A public key is a cryptographic code that allows a user to receive cryptocurrencies, while a private key is the code that allows a user to spend cryptocurrencies. Each key is a long string of numbers and letters, and they are impossible to guess without knowing the other key. Public and private keys are generated when a new wallet is created.

Public-key cryptography (asymmetric cryptography)

Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses two keys: a public key and a private key. The public key can be shared with anyone, while the private key must be kept secret. Messages encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted with the private key, and messages encrypted with the private key can only be decrypted with the public key. This allows for secure communication between two parties who do not trust each other.

Public-key cryptography was first proposed by British mathematician James Ellis in 1973. However, it was not until 1976 that Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published a paper describing a practical method of using public-key cryptography.

Public-Key Infrastructure

Public-key infrastructure is a cryptographic system that enables users to securely communicate over an insecure network. In a public-key infrastructure, each user has two keys: a public key and a private key. The public key can be shared with anyone, while the private key must be kept secret. Messages encrypted with the recipient’s public key can only be decrypted with the recipient’s private key, and messages encrypted with the sender’s private key can only be decrypted with the sender’s public key. This allows users to communicate securely without having to exchange secret passwords or cryptographic keys.

Public-key infrastructure is commonly used for secure communications, such as email and file sharing. It can also be used to create digital signatures, which are used to verify the authenticity of documents and messages.

Q

R

Recovery Phrase

The blockchain technology is used in various ways and one of them is the creation of a wallet. A wallet is a digital place where you can store your cryptocurrencies. There are different types of wallets, but the most popular ones are the Bitcoin and Ethereum wallets.

The wallets are created with a unique 12-word recovery phrase. This recovery phrase is very important, as it can be used to restore your wallet if something happens to it. The recovery phrase should be written down and stored in a safe place. If you lose your password or your cryptocurrency is stolen, you can use the recovery phrase to restore your wallet and get your money back.

A 12-word recovery phrase is a way to keep your cryptocurrency wallet safe. By writing down the 12 words and keeping them safe, you can always recover your wallet if something happens to your device. The 12-word recovery phrase is unique to your wallet and cannot be used by anyone else.

Many people choose to write their recovery phrase down on a piece of paper and keep it in a safe place. This is the safest way to store your recovery phrase, as it cannot be accessed by hackers or thieves. However, if you lose the paper with your recovery phrase on it, you will lose access to your wallet forever.

Some people choose to store their recovery phrase in a digital format, such as in a text file or on a computer.


S

Satoshi Nakamoto

Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who designed bitcoin and created its original reference implementation. As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database. In 2008, Nakamoto published a paper describing bitcoin and how it would work. In 2009, he released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and mining process. Nakamoto continued to contribute to the project until mid-2010.

Very little is known about Satoshi Nakamoto, beyond his role in creating Bitcoin. He has not been seen or heard from since 2010, leading some to believe he is no longer involved in Bitcoin development. His identity, nationality, and gender remain a mystery.

Satoshis

Satoshis are the smallest denomination of a bitcoin, named after the creator of Bitcoin himself. There are 100 million satoshis in a single bitcoin. In addition to bitcoins, there are also ether and litecoin, both of which have their own denominations.

Ether is divisible down to 18 decimal places, and there are 100 million ether in a single ether. Litecoin is divisible down to eight decimal places, and there are 4 million litecoins in a single litecoin.

All three cryptocurrencies are stored in digital wallets, which come in many different shapes and sizes. Some wallets store multiple cryptocurrencies, while others store just one. Some wallets are desktop-based, while others are mobile-based or even physical hardware devices.

Scalability

In computing, scalability is the ability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to cope with that growth. Scalability is important because as a blockchain grows, it becomes more difficult for all users to keep up with the pace of transactions. Bitcoin and Ethereum are two examples of blockchains that have struggled with scalability in the past.

Blockchain platforms like Bitcoin and Ethereum are working on new technologies to help them scale. For example, Bitcoin is implementing the Lightning Network, which will allow for faster transactions. Ethereum is working on sharding, which will split up the network into shards so that each one can process transactions independently.

Scrypt

Bitcoin and Ethereum are the two most popular cryptocurrencies in the world. Bitcoin is based on the SHA-256 algorithm, while Ethereum is based on the Ethash algorithm. However, both of these algorithms have been shown to be vulnerable to attack. In order to address these vulnerabilities, a new hash function called Scrypt has been developed. Scrypt is resistant to GPU and FPGA mining, making it more secure than Bitcoin and Ethereum. As a result, Scrypt is becoming increasingly popular among cryptocurrency miners.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a security protocol used to protect information being sent between two systems. SSL is most commonly used in the context of web browsers and websites, but can be used in other applications as well. When you visit a website that uses SSL, your browser will create a secure connection with the website’s server. This connection protects your information from being intercepted by anyone else on the network.

SSL is based on a technology called blockchain. Blockchain is a distributed database that allows for secure, transparent and tamper-proof transactions. Ethereum is a blockchain platform that enables developers to build applications on top of it. Ethereum can be used to create secure SSL connections between systems.

Security Token

A security token is a digital asset that represents ownership of a security, such as a bond or stock. Security tokens are created on blockchain platforms like Ethereum, and can be traded on decentralized exchanges. Because they are digital assets, security tokens can be transferred quickly and easily, and can be used to represent ownership in a variety of different ways.

One of the main reasons security tokens are becoming popular is because they offer investors more flexibility and liquidity than traditional securities. For example, with a traditional stock certificate, an investor can only sell the stock to another party who is interested in buying it. With a security token, however, an investor can sell the token to any party who wants to buy it.

This makes it easier for investors to liquidate their investments and get the most value for their money.

Security Token Offering (STO)

An STO is a new way to raise money by issuing tradable tokens on a blockchain. STOs are similar to initial coin offerings (ICOs), but they comply with securities laws.

Unlike an ICO, an STO must be registered with the SEC and must disclose important information about the company and the token.

Seed Phrase

A seed phrase is a list of words that can be used to restore a cryptocurrency wallet. Seed phrases are created when a new wallet is generated. They are usually 12-24 words long and are used to backup the wallet. If the wallet is lost or destroyed, the seed phrase can be used to restore the wallet and access the funds.

Most cryptocurrencies use a seed phrase to generate private keys. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin all use BIP39 seed phrases. A BIP39 seed phrase is a list of english words that can be used to generate a private key. The word list is generated from a passphrase. The passphrase can be any string of characters, but it must be at least 12 characters long.

When creating a new cryptocurrency wallet, you will be asked to create a seed phrase.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated witness, or SegWit, is a proposed change to the bitcoin blockchain that would increase its capacity. SegWit is a modification to the bitcoin code that changes how data is stored. It splits data into two parts: signature data and transaction data. Signature data is removed from the transaction data and stored separately. This reduces the size of each transaction, allowing more transactions to be stored in each block.

Segregated witness has several benefits. First, it increases the capacity of the bitcoin blockchain. This allows more transactions to be processed, which speeds up processing times and reduces fees. Second, SegWit makes it easier for developers to create applications that use the bitcoin blockchain. Third, SegWit fixes a security vulnerability that could have been exploited by hackers.

Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI)

The self-sovereign identity (SSI) movement is a reaction to the centralization of identity by governments and corporations. SSI is an attempt to give individuals control over their own personal data.

One of the key technologies behind SSI is blockchain technology. Blockchain is a distributed database that allows for secure, transparent and tamper-proof transactions. This makes it an ideal technology for handling identity data.

Ethereum is another key technology behind SSI. Ethereum is a blockchain-based computing platform that allows for the development of decentralized applications. This makes it possible to create applications that manage identity data without relying on centralized authorities.

Wallets are also important for SSI. A wallet is a digital application that stores cryptographic keys and allows users to access their digital assets.

Serenity

Serenity is an upcoming blockchain platform based on the Ethereum network. It is designed to improve the scalability and security of the Ethereum network, and to enable the development of decentralized applications that can handle mainstream user traffic. Serenity is scheduled for launch in late 2019 or early 2020.

One of the key features of Serenity is its use of sharding, a technique for dividing blockchain data into smaller pieces that can be processed more efficiently. Sharding will allow Serenity to scale to a much larger number of transactions than the Ethereum network currently supports. In addition, Serenity will use a new consensus algorithm called Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget), which is intended to provide greater security than the current Proof-of-Work algorithm used by Ethereum.

SHA-256

SHA-256 is a cryptographic hash function that takes an input of any length and produces a 256-bit output. The function was designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published in 2001. SHA-256 is used in conjunction with a number of other cryptographic functions in blockchain technology, most notably Ethereum.

Sidechain

A sidechain is a separate blockchain that is attached to the main blockchain network through special links. These links allow tokens and digital assets to be transferred back and forth between blockchains. Sidechains are not as secure as the main blockchain, but they offer faster transaction speeds and more scalability.

The main blockchain network can become congested when too many transactions are processed at once, but a sidechain can handle more transactions because it has its own dedicated network. Sidechains also allow for faster transaction speeds, which can be useful for businesses that need to process transactions quickly.

Signature

Cryptographic signatures are a way to prove the authenticity of a message or document. They are created using a cryptographic algorithm and a secret key. The signature is appended to the message, and the recipient can use the same algorithm and key to verify the signature.

Cryptographic signatures can be used for authentication, verification, and non-repudiation. Authentication means that the recipient can verify that the message was actually sent by the sender. Verification means that the recipient can verify that the contents of the message have not been altered since it was signed. Non-repudiation means that the sender cannot deny having sent the message.

Cryptographic signatures are used in many different applications, including email, file sharing, and blockchain technology. In blockchain technology, cryptographic signatures are used to verify transactions and create new blocks.

Smart Contract

They are computer protocols that facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract. Smart contracts allow the performance of credible transactions without third parties. These transactions are trackable and irreversible.

Smart contracts are executed by decentralized applications (DApps) on a blockchain network. The code is open source and can be audited by anyone. When a user wants to initiate a smart contract, they will submit it to the network for execution. The DApp will then verify that all the conditions of the contract have been met and then execute it automatically. Once the contract is executed, it cannot be changed or reversed.

Smart Tokens

Smart tokens is a blockchain-based token that has functionality built into it beyond just being a currency. Smart tokens can be used to represent assets or shares, for example, and can also be programmed to do things like release funds when certain conditions are met or vote on important decisions.

Smart tokens are made possible by Ethereum, a blockchain platform that allows for the development of decentralized applications. Ethereum uses smart contracts, which are computer protocols that automatically execute the terms of an agreement. This makes it possible for tokens to be coded with specific rules and functions that can be executed automatically once they are released onto the blockchain.

Soft Fork

A soft fork is a change to the software of a blockchain that is backward compatible with older versions of the software. This means that nodes running older software will still follow the new rules, whereas nodes running the new software will only accept blocks that adhere to those new rules. Soft forks are often used to implement changes to a blockchain without causing a split in the network.

The first soft fork on Ethereum was implemented in October 2016 to enable developers to create contracts using the more powerful and user-friendly Solidity programming language. Prior to this fork, all contracts on Ethereum were written in Serpent, which was less user-friendly and more difficult to use. The soft fork caused very little disruption to the network and was successful in implementing the change.

Software Development Kit (SDK)

An SDK (Software Development Kit) is a set of tools that allow developers to create software. SDKs typically include libraries, APIs, and documentation.

SDKs are important for blockchain development because they provide the tools needed to create applications that interact with the blockchain. SDKs for Ethereum, for example, include libraries for working with smart contracts and accessing blockchain data.

SDKs are also important for cryptocurrency development. Most cryptocurrencies have their own SDKs that allow developers to create wallets, exchanges, and other applications.

Software Wallet

A software wallet is a program that stores and manages the user’s cryptocurrencies. The first software wallets were created for Bitcoin in 2009, and since then many different types of software wallets have been developed for other cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum.

Software wallets can be desktop applications, mobile applications, or websites. They can be used to store any type of cryptocurrency, but each type of software wallet is specific to a certain coin. For example, there are different software wallets for Bitcoin and Ethereum.

The main benefits of using a software wallet are security and convenience. Software wallets are usually very secure because they are not connected to the internet and therefore cannot be hacked. They are also convenient because they can be used on any device, including mobile devices and computers.

Solidity

Solidity is a programming language for developing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It is a Turing-complete language that allows developers to create contracts that can execute code when certain conditions are met. Solidity is based on JavaScript, and developers who are familiar with JavaScript should be able to pick up Solidity relatively easily.

It is a contract-oriented, high-level language for writing and deploying smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It was designed to target Solidity users with extensive experience in object-oriented programming (OOP) and functional programming. The syntax of Solidity is influenced by both languages, while it also aims to cover all features of Ethereum.

Stablecoin

A stablecoin is a cryptocurrency that is pegged to another asset, usually fiat currency. This allows for the stability of the coin’s value, as opposed to other cryptocurrencies which can be prone to large fluctuations in price. There are a variety of different methods that can be used to peg a coin to another asset, and several different stablecoins currently exist on the market.

One of the most well-known stablecoins is Tether (USDT), which is pegged to the US dollar. Tether has been embroiled in controversy in recent months, however, after allegations arose that the company was not actually backing up its coins with USD reserves. Another popular stablecoin is MakerDAO’s Dai ( DAI ), which is pegged to the value of Ether.

Staking

Staking is a process by which participants in a blockchain network can earn rewards for supporting the network. In order to participate in staking, a user must first hold a certain amount of tokens on the network. Then, the user must stake their tokens in order to be eligible for rewards.

In most cases, staking requires users to lock up their tokens in a smart contract. This locked-up capital is then used to validate transactions and secure the network. In return, users receive rewards based on their contribution to the network.

There are several benefits of staking, including:

  • earning passive income;
  • securing the network and validating transactions; and
  • participating in governance decisions.

Staking Pool

A staking pool is a group of Ethereum holders who combine their resources to increase their chances of earning rewards from staking. By pooling their resources, they can increase the total ETH they have available to stake, and thus increase their chances of earning rewards.

There are a number of benefits to joining a staking pool. First, it allows you to earn rewards without having to hold a large amount of ETH. Second, it allows you to share the risk with other members of the pool; if one member fails to earn rewards, the rest of the pool still earns rewards. Third, it allows you to take advantage of economies of scale; by pooleding resources, you can afford to buy more ETH and thus increase your chances of earning rewards. Finally, it allows you to collaborate with others in order to improve your chances of earning rewards.

Store of Value

A store of value is anything that maintains its purchasing power over time. This means that it can be used to buy goods and services at a later date, without the effects of inflation devaluing its worth. Throughout history, many items have been used as stores of value, including gold, land, and even salt.

The traditional options, such as cash or government-issued bonds, offer little protection against inflation. As a result, many people have turned to cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology as a new way to safeguard their money.

Symmetric Encryption

Symmetric encryption is a type of encryption that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data. Symmetric encryption is considered more secure than asymmetric encryption, because the key is not shared. Symmetric encryption is used in blockchain technology and cryptocurrency transactions.

Synthetic Asset

Synthetic assets are financial products that are created by combining two or more underlying assets. One common type of synthetic asset is a blockchain token that is backed by real estate. These tokens can be used to invest in property without having to go through the hassle of buying and managing physical property. Another example of a synthetic asset is a cryptocurrency that is backed by gold. This type of cryptocurrency can be used to invest in gold without having to worry about storing and safeguarding physical gold. Synthetic assets offer investors a way to gain exposure to different types of assets without having to deal with the complexities involved in owning them outright.


T

Transport Layer Security (TLS)

TLS is a protocol that provides security for communications over the internet. It allows two entities to communicate in a way that ensures that their communication cannot be intercepted or read by unauthorized third parties.

TLS uses a combination of public key cryptography and symmetric key cryptography to provide security. Public key cryptography is used to establish a secure connection between two entities, and symmetric key cryptography is used to encrypt the data that is exchanged between them.

TLS is important because it allows entities to communicate securely over the internet. Without TLS, information transmitted over the internet could be intercepted and read by unauthorized third parties.

Testnet

A testnet is a network of computers used for testing new features and applications of a cryptocurrency or blockchain technology. They are often used to trial proposed changes to the network before they are implemented on the mainnet. Testnets are also used to experiment with new protocols and develop improvements to the existing ones.

The ethereum testnet is called Rinkeby. It was launched in March 2017 and has been used for a number of important experiments, such as the launch of the first decentralized application on ethereum. The Rinkeby testnet is accessible to anyone who wants to use it, and you can find instructions on how to do so on the ethereum wiki.

Third-Party Storage

Third-party storage is an important part of the blockchain ecosystem. These services provide a way for users to store their data on a remote server, making it easy to access and share. This can be helpful for businesses that want to take advantage of the security and transparency of the blockchain but don’t want to manage their own infrastructure.

There are a number of third-party storage providers available, and each has its own strengths and weaknesses. Some popular options include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). Each of these services offers a variety of storage options, including both public and private cloud storage.

When choosing a third-party storage provider, it’s important to consider your needs and budget. Decide how much storage you need, what features are important to you, and what type of hosting you want (public or private).

Timestamp

A timestamp is a record of when an event occurred. They are commonly used in accounting, legal documents, and scientific research. Timestamps can be used to prove that a document existed at a certain time, or to track the progression of a project.

Blockchain technology allows for secure, transparent, and tamper-proof records. This makes it an ideal platform for timestamping events. By adding a timestamp to a blockchain transaction, you can be sure that the event occurred at the time specified and that it has not been modified since then.

Token

A token is a representation of something else. Tokens are often used in blockchain technology to represent digital assets or shares. In the Ethereum network, tokens are created by smart contracts. These tokens can be used to represent anything that the creator of the contract desires. For example, a token could be created to represent voting rights in a company, or it could be used as a currency on a specific website.

Tokenization

Tokenization is a process of dividing a digital asset into smaller parts, or tokens. This can be done for various reasons such as security, to make the asset more manageable, or to create a new type of asset.

One of the most well-known applications of tokenization is in the cryptocurrency world, where it is used to create new coins and tokens. Tokenization has also been used in other areas such as real estate and fine art.

Tokenization Standard

The Ethereum Foundation has been working on a tokenization standard, which would make it possible to issue and trade tokens on the Ethereum blockchain. The standard is based on ERC20, a protocol that was developed for the Ethereum network.

ERC20 defines a set of rules that tokens must follow in order to be compatible with the Ethereum blockchain. These rules include how the tokens are transferred and how they are stored.

The goal of the tokenization standard is to create a common platform for issuing and trading tokens. This would make it easier for people to buy and sell tokens, and it would also make it easier for developers to build applications that use tokens.

Tokenized Representation

Tokenized representation is the process of encoding an entity, such as a person or company, into a digital token. These tokens can be stored on a blockchain, such as Ethereum, and can be used to represent the entity in transactions. Tokenized representation can be used to streamline processes and reduce costs associated with traditional methods of representation. For example, a company might use tokenized representation to issue shares of stock rather than using traditional paper certificates. This would allow for faster and cheaper transactions and could potentially increase liquidity in the stock market.

Tokenomics

Tokenomics is the study of the economics of tokens. Tokens are a new type of digital asset that can represent anything of value. They are used to power decentralized applications (dapps) on blockchain networks like Ethereum.

Tokens are created when a user deposits ether (the native currency of Ethereum) into a smart contract. The contract then creates a new token and assigns it to the sender. The tokens can be transferred or traded on decentralized exchanges.

Tokens have been used to raise millions of dollars in funding for startup companies. They are also used to pay for goods and services on dapps. As the use of tokens grows, so does the need for understanding their economics.

Total Value Locked (TVL)

The total value locked in blockchain refers to the total value of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that are stored in blockchain and has been increasing rapidly over time. The value has grown from $1 billion USD at the beginning of 2017 to over $150 billion USD by the end of November 2017.

Traceability

Traceability is an important property for many applications. In the context of blockchains, it is especially useful for tracking the provenance of digital assets and tokens. Blockchain technology provides a tamper-proof record of transactions, making it an ideal platform for tracing the movement of assets and tokens.

Ethereum is a blockchain platform that enables developers to build decentralized applications (dapps). Ethereum contracts can be used to create tokens that represent assets or rights. These tokens can be tracked on the Ethereum blockchain, making it possible to trace their movement and ownership.

Transaction Fee

Transaction fees are an important aspect of the crypto world. They are what incentivize miners to keep track of and secure the blockchain. Miners are rewarded in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies for verifying and committing transactions to the blockchain. The more transactions that occur, the higher the transaction fees become. This is because miners need to include a set fee with each transaction in order to have it processed by the network. Transactions that don’t include a fee will likely be delayed or even rejected.

Transaction ID

The Transaction ID is a unique identifier for each and every transaction that occurs on the blockchain. This number is generated by the network when the transaction is initiated, and it is used to keep track of the transaction as it moves through the network.

The Transaction ID is also used to confirm that a particular transaction has occurred, and that it was not tampered with along the way. This helps to ensure the security and integrity of the blockchain.

Transactions per second (TPS)

To put it simply, a TPS is the number of completed transactions processed by a blockchain network in a given amount of time. Generally, the higher the TPS, the faster and more efficient the network is. This is an important metric to consider when evaluating different blockchains as it directly impacts how quickly and easily transactions can be carried out.

TPS is an important metric because it reflects the capacity and performance of a blockchain network. A high TPS means that more transactions can be completed in a shorter amount of time, making the network more efficient. Conversely, a low TPS could lead to longer wait times for transactions to be processed, which could impact user experience and discourage people from using the network.

TRC-20 Token

TRC-20 is a new type of token that has been designed specifically for use in online games. The developers of TRC-20 hope that this new type of token will help to improve the security and efficiency of online gaming transactions.

One of the main advantages of TRC-20 is that it is built on the blockchain technology. This means that all transactions are recorded on a public ledger, which helps to ensure transparency and security. Additionally, TRC-20 uses smart contracts, which help to automate the process of exchanging tokens between players. This can help to reduce the risk of fraud and improve the overall efficiency of online gaming transactions.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is a security process that requires two different forms of identification from the user to access an account. The first factor is typically a password, while the second factor can be a number generated by an app on the user’s phone, a security token, or even biometric data. 2FA is commonly used in business and finance settings, but has also been gaining popularity among cryptocurrency enthusiasts as an added layer of security for their digital assets.

One of the key benefits of 2FA is that it can help protect users from potential hacks and cyber attacks. For example, if someone manages to steal your password, they would still not be able to log in to your account without also having access to your 2FA code or token.


U

Unit of Account

A unit of account is a measurement used to track the value of goods, services, or other items. In the context of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology, a unit of account is also known as a “token.” Tokens can be used to represent different things such as products or services, rights, or access.

The use of tokens allows for the easy and efficient trading of goods and services. They can also be used to store and transfer value in a more secure way than traditional methods. Tokens are created on blockchain platforms through the process of mining or by issuing them in an initial coin offering (ICO).

Universal Market Access (UMA)

Universal market access (UMA) refers to the ability to trade goods and services with any other party in the world without having to rely on intermediaries.

The use of blockchain technology for UMA is made possible by Ethereum, which is a public blockchain that allows for the development of decentralized applications. These applications can be used to create markets that are free from censorship and fraud.

One example of a decentralized application that enables UMA is OpenBazaar. OpenBazaar is a peer-to-peer marketplace that allows users to buy and sell goods and services without having to rely on a central authority.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)

A UTXO is an unspent transaction output. When you send a bitcoin, the network looks for the unspent outputs from your wallet and creates a new transaction with all of those outputs combined. The new transaction becomes part of the blockchain once it’s verified by miners.

UTXOs are important because they’re used to calculate your dust limit. This is the maximum amount you can spend without paying a fee. If you try to send anything above your dust limit, the network will require you to include a fee.

UTXOs can also be used to track payments. By looking at the blockchain, you can see how many bitcoins have been sent to each address and when they were sent. This information can be used to create detailed payment histories.

Utility Token

A utility token is a digital asset that provides access to a service or function on a blockchain platform. These tokens are used to pay for goods or services within the blockchain ecosystem. Ethereum is the most popular platform for launching utility tokens.

Utility tokens provide several benefits over traditional payment methods. They are faster, cheaper, and more secure than traditional payment methods. They also provide a more convenient way to pay for goods and services.

Utility tokens are used in the same way as traditional currency. They can be used to purchase goods and services from vendors who accept them as payment. They can also be traded on cryptocurrency exchanges for other digital assets or traditional currency.


V

Validator

Validators are nodes on the Ethereum blockchain that are responsible for ensuring that transactions are valid and added to the proper blocks. Validators use their computers to check every transaction against the rules of the network, and only add them to a block if they meet all the requirements. In return for verifying transactions, validators are rewarded with ether.

Validators play a very important role in the Ethereum network. Not only do they ensure that transactions are valid, but they also help to secure the blockchain by verifying new blocks. This helps to prevent attacks on the network and keeps it running smoothly.

Vitalik Buterin

Vitalik Buterin is the co-founder of Ethereum, a public blockchain platform that enables developers to build decentralized applications. He was born in Russia in 1994 and immigrated to Canada with his family at the age of six. He started programming at the age of 12 and got interested in bitcoin and blockchain technology in 2011.

He dropped out of college at the age of 19 to work on Ethereum full-time. Vitalik is a world-renowned expert on blockchain technology and has been named one of “the most influential people in fintech” by Forbes.

Volatility

Volatility is a measure of how much the price of an asset changes over time. A high volatility asset will experience larger price swings than a low volatility asset.

The cryptocurrency market is notorious for its high levels of volatility. Prices can change dramatically in a short period of time, causing investors to experience large losses or gains.

One reason for the high volatility is the lack of regulation in the market. There is no central authority overseeing cryptocurrency trading, which leaves the door open for manipulation.

Another reason for the high volatility is the extreme price swings caused by speculators. When investors are bullish on a cryptocurrency, they will buy in anticipation of greater returns in the future. This causes prices to rise rapidly. When investors are bearish on a cryptocurrency, they will sell their holdings, which causes prices to fall rapidly.


W

Wallet

A wallet is a software program that stores private and public keys, interacts with various blockchain to enables users to send and receive digital currency and monitor their balance. Wallets can be used on a computer or smartphone.

There are various types of wallets available, each with its own set of features. Some wallets are specifically for bitcoin, while others can store multiple cryptocurrencies. Ethereum-specific wallets include Mist, MyEtherWallet and Parity.

When choosing a wallet, it’s important to consider the security features offered as well as the user experience. Some wallets are more user-friendly than others, making them better suited for new users. Security features can vary from one wallet to another, so it’s important to research different options before making a decision.

Web 3.0

Web 3.0 is the third and latest version of the World Wide Web, following versions 1.0 and 2.0. It is still in development, but when complete will provide a more secure, efficient and user-friendly internet experience. Key features of Web 3.0 will include blockchain-based applications, increased privacy and security, and improved user interfaces.

The first step towards building a Web 3.0 infrastructure is the development of decentralized applications (dapps), which are built on top of blockchains such as Ethereum. These dapps can provide a wide range of services, from file storage to social networking to financial services.

They are secure, because they are decentralized and run on a network of computers rather than a single server. They are also transparent, because all transactions on the blockchain are publicly visible.

Web3 Foundation

The Web3 Foundation is a Swiss non-profit foundation, which was created in May of 2018 with the mission to develop and promote decentralized technologies. The foundation is best known for their work on the Ethereum blockchain, but they are also working on other projects such as Polkadot and Substrate.

One of the main goals of the Web3 Foundation is to make it easier for people to use decentralized technologies. They do this by developing protocols and standards that make it easier to build decentralized applications. They also work on educating people about how these technologies can be used to create a more decentralized world.

The Web3 Foundation is one of the most well-funded blockchain foundations, and they have received support from some of the biggest names in the industry, including Binance, ConsenSys, and Polychain Capital.

Web Wallet

A web wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet that allows users to store their cryptocurrencies on the web. Web wallets are typically hosted by third-party providers and allow users to access their cryptocurrencies from anywhere in the world. Web wallets are popular among users who want to have easy access to their cryptocurrencies and do not want to worry about managing their own wallets.

Web wallets are often used to store Ethereum and other altcoins. They provide an easy way for users to store and manage their cryptocurrencies without having to install any software or manage any hardware. Most web wallets also offer features like two-factor authentication, password recovery, and encryption, which help protect user funds.

Whitepaper

A whitepaper is a research document that is used to introduce and outline a new technology or idea. The purpose of a whitepaper is to provide a detailed description of the technology or idea, as well as its potential applications. The target audience for a whitepaper is typically investors, developers, or industry experts.

Whitepapers are often associated with blockchain technology and Ethereum. In fact, the Ethereum Foundation released its first whitepaper in 2013. The white paper detailed the concept of Ethereum and described how it could be used to create a decentralized platform for applications.


X


Y

Yield Farming

Yield farming is the practice of staking in tokens. It’s a relatively new concept, but it’s gaining in popularity because it offers a number of advantages over traditional investment vehicles. For one thing, it’s a very secure way to invest your money. The blockchain technology that underpins Ethereum makes it virtually impossible for hackers to steal your tokens. In addition, yield farming allows you to maximize your return on investment by providing opportunities for compound interest. And because the tokens are backed by real-world assets, there is no risk of losing your investment.


Z

Zero-Knowledge Proof

Zero-knowledge proofs are a cryptographic technique used to prove that a party knows something without revealing what that information is. This is done by having the party in question create a proof of knowledge, which is then verified by the other party.

Zero-knowledge proofs can be used in a variety of applications, including authentication, privacy, and data security. They are particularly useful in blockchain applications, where they can be used to verify transactions without revealing any information about the parties involved or the contents of the transaction.

Zero Knowledge Proof Roll-Up (ZKR)

Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) technology is a breakthrough in cryptography that enables two or more parties to verify information without revealing any other information. This allows for secure transactions and data exchanges without the need for a third party.

The use of ZKP technology is growing in the blockchain world, with projects such as Ethereum using it to verify transactions. ZKP offers an efficient and secure way to conduct transactions without exposing any unnecessary information.