A blockchain is an immutable database of transactions. The ledger cannot be altered without all parties on the network agreeing to the new version. Participants must use cryptography to prevent fraud and ensure the system’s reliability.
Blockchain’s distributed ledger may someday power entire industries and even economies.
In a blockchain network, all nodes participate in validating and executing transactions. Unfortunately, this requires every node to have a full copy of the blockchain, which can be prohibitively large for networks with a large number of nodes.
Blockchains use a technique called account abstraction layer (AAL) to address this issue, which splits up the full blockchain into smaller parts known as shards.
Each shard contains its full copy of the blockchain and is responsible for validating and executing transactions within its subset of the network. This allows nodes to participate in the validation and execution of transactions without storing the entire blockchain, making the network more scalable.
The AAL also enables networks to partition their data across multiple shards, handling larger-scale datasets than traditional blockchains.